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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 12, 2022

Registration No. 333-

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

Form F-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

LAVA Therapeutics N.V.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Not Applicable

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

The Netherlands

Not Applicable

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

Yalelaan 60

3584 CM Utrecht

The Netherlands

+31 6 3000 3035

(Address and telephone number of registrant’s principal executive offices)

Lava Therapeutics, Inc.

520 Walnut Street, Suite 1150

Philadelphia, PA 19106

+1 800 311 6892

(Name, address and telephone number of agent for service)

Copies to:

Peter Jaslow

Ballard Spahr LLP

1735 Market Street

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 08033

+1 215 665 8500

Paul van der Bijl

NautaDutilh N.V.

Beethovenstraat 400

1082 PR Amsterdam

The Netherlands

+31 20 717 1000

APPROXIMATE DATE OF COMMENCEMENT OF PROPOSED SALE TO THE PUBLIC: From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box. ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.C. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective on filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.C. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is an emerging growth company as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act of 1933.

Emerging growth company ☒

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐


The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.


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EXPLANATORY NOTE

This registration statement contains two prospectuses:

a base prospectus which covers the offering, issuance and sale of up to an unspecified amount of the registrant’s common shares, warrants, units and debt securities; and
an equity distribution agreement prospectus supplement covering the offering, issuance and sale of up to $50,000,000 of the registrant’s common shares that may be issued and sold under the equity distribution agreement between the registrant and JMP Securities LLC.

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The equity distribution agreement prospectus supplement immediately follows the base prospectus.


The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state or jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

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Subject to Completion, dated April 12, 2022.

PROSPECTUS

Graphic

$250,000,000

Common Shares

Warrants

Units

Debt Securities

We may offer and sell up to $250,000,000 in the aggregate of the securities identified above, in each case from time to time in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities.

Each time we offer and sell or otherwise dispose of the securities described in this prospectus, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering and the amounts, prices and terms of the securities. The supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to the offering. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement before you invest in any of our securities.

We may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, or through a combination of these methods. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the sections of this prospectus entitled “About this Prospectus” and “Plan of Distribution” for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities.

INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES RISKS. SEE THE “RISK FACTORS” ON PAGE 6 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AND THE DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE INTO THIS PROSPECTUS CONCERNING FACTORS YOU SHOULD CONSIDER BEFORE INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES.

Our common shares are listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “LVTX.” On April 11, 2022, the last reported sale price of our common shares on The Nasdaq Global Select Market was $3.88 per share.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is , 2022.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS 

About This Prospectus

1

Presentation of Financial Information

1

Market and Industry Data

1

Trademarks, Services Marks and Tradenames

1

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

2

Our Company

3

Risk Factors

6

Capitalization

6

Use of Proceeds

7

Dividend Policy

7

Description of Share Capital and Articles of Association

8

Descriptions of Warrants

24

Description of Units

25

Description of Debt Securities

26

Forms of Securities

28

Plan of Distribution

30

Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference

32

Enforcement of Civil Liabilities

32

Expenses

33

Legal Matters

33

Experts

33

Where You Can Find More Information

33


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is a part of a registration statement that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, we may sell securities from time to time and in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $250,000,000 as described in this prospectus. Each time that we offer and sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the securities being offered and sold and the specific terms of that offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, you should rely on the prospectus supplement. Before purchasing any securities, you should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”

You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement and any issuer free writing prospectus. We have not authorized any other person to provide you with different information or to make any representation other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. If any person provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We will not make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement to this prospectus is accurate as of the date on its respective cover, and that any information incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, unless we indicate otherwise. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

When we refer to “LAVA,” “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” in this prospectus, we mean LAVA Therapeutics N.V. and its consolidated subsidiary, unless otherwise specified. When we refer to “you,” we mean the holders of the applicable securities.

PRESENTATION OF FINANCIAL INFORMATION

We report under International Financial Reporting Standards, or IFRS, as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board, or the IASB. None of the financial statements presented or incorporated by reference in this prospectus were prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States. The exchange rate used for conversion between U.S. dollars and euros is based on the ECB euro reference exchange rate published by the European Central Bank. We have made rounding adjustments to some of the figures included in this prospectus. Accordingly, numerical figures shown as totals in some tables may not be an arithmetic aggregation of the figures that preceded them. All references in this prospectus to “$” and “U.S. dollars” mean U.S. dollars and all references to “€” mean euros, unless otherwise noted.

MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA

We have obtained the industry, market and competitive position data in this prospectus from our own internal estimates and research as well as from industry and general publications and research, surveys and studies conducted by third parties. Industry publications, studies and surveys generally state that they have been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, although they do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of such information. While we are not aware of any misstatements regarding the market or industry data presented herein, our estimates are our responsibility and involve risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors,” “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in this prospectus.

TRADEMARKS, SERVICE MARKS AND TRADENAMES

We have proprietary rights to trademarks used in this prospectus, including LAVA Therapeutics, which are important to our business, many of which are registered under applicable intellectual property laws.

Solely for convenience, the trademarks, service marks, logos and trade names referred to in this prospectus are without the ® and ™ symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights or the rights of the applicable licensors to these trademarks, service marks and trade names. This prospectus contains additional trademarks, service marks and trade names of others, which are the property of their respective owners. All trademarks, service marks and trade names appearing in this prospectus are, to our knowledge, the property of their respective owners. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trademarks, service marks, copyrights or trade names to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus contains statements that constitute forward-looking statements. Many of the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus can be identified by the use of forward-looking words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “could,” “expect,” “should,” “plan,” “intend,” “estimate” and “potential,” among others. Forward-looking statements appear in a number of places in this prospectus and include, but are not limited to, statements regarding our intent, belief or current expectations. Forward-looking statements are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. Such statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, and actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements due to various important factors, including, but not limited to, those identified under the section titled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

our operations as a biotechnology company with limited operating history and a history of operating losses;
our plans to develop and commercialize our product candidates;
the initiation, timing, progress and results of our current and future preclinical studies and clinical trials and our research and development programs;
our expectations regarding the impact of the COVID 19 pandemic on our business, our industry and the economy;
our ability to successfully acquire or in-license additional product candidates on reasonable terms;
our ability to maintain and establish collaborations or obtain additional funding;
our ability to obtain regulatory approval of our current and future product candidates;
our expectations regarding the potential market size and the rate and degree of market acceptance of such product candidates;
our continued reliance on third parties to conduct clinical trials of our product candidates and manufacture our product candidates for preclinical studies and clinical trials;
our ability to fund our working capital requirements and expectations regarding the sufficiency of our capital resources;
the implementation of our business model and strategic plans for our business and product candidates;
our ability to establish sales, marketing and distribution capabilities;
our intellectual property position and the duration of our patent rights;
our estimates regarding expenses, future revenues, capital requirements and our needs for additional financing;
the impact of government laws and regulations on our business;
our need to hire additional personnel and our ability to attract and retain such personnel;
our ability to compete in the markets we serve;
developments relating to our competitors and our industry; and
other risk factors discussed under “Risk Factors.”

Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made, and we do not undertake any obligation to update them in light of new information or future developments or to release publicly any revisions to these statements in order to reflect later events or circumstances or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events, except to the extent required by applicable law.

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OUR COMPANY

Overview

We are a clinical-stage immuno-oncology company dedicated to rapidly developing new cancer treatments that leverage the immune system to save patients’ lives. Using our GammabodyTM platform, we are developing a portfolio of novel bispecific antibodies designed to engage, and leverage the potency and precision of, gamma delta (gd) T cells to elicit a robust anti-tumor immune response in order to improve outcomes for cancer patients.

Gamma delta (gd) T cells are a ready-to-fight first line of defense of the human body and form a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune systems. Vgamma9 Vdelta2 (Vg9Vd2) T cells, the largest subpopulation of gamma delta T cells in healthy adults, are a homogeneous effector T cell population whose prevalence has been correlated with favorable outcomes and survival in blood cancers (hematological malignancies) and solid tumors. They have the natural ability to distinguish cancer cells from healthy cells and, once activated, have the potential to trigger a rapid and potent immune response to a wide array of cancers. In addition, gamma delta T cells can initiate further activation of cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems, which can lead to a long-lasting immune response and immunological memory.

Other T cell engager (TCE) approaches, including bispecific antibodies that activate T cells through binding of CD3, which is present on all T cells, and adoptive transfer of T cells expressing an engineered chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-T) cells, have provided clinical activity against selected cancers. Nonetheless, the promise of TCEs for broader use as cancer therapy has not yet been fully realized. Drawbacks of these approaches include dose-limiting toxicities resulting from the excessive release of cytokines, referred to as cytokine release syndrome (CRS). CD3-based TCEs have additional limitations because of their broad activation of T cells, including both effector T cells and regulatory cells (Tregs). Activation of Tregs can dampen anti-cancer immunity, potentially resulting in decreased or no therapeutic efficacy. The therapeutic active dose and the toxic dose of CD3-based TCEs are often in close proximity, resulting in a very narrow therapeutic window, which may preclude full exploitation of their therapeutic potential. Adoptive transfer of CAR-T cells is complex and costly, and has also been associated with significant risk of CRS an on-target off-tumor-related toxicities.

Our Gammabody platform enables us to develop off-the-shelf bispecific T cell engagers that leverage the advantages of antibody-based treatments including favorable manufacturability and developability characteristics. Our Gammabody platform is designed, to recruit the body’s own Vgamma9 Vdelta2 T cells resulting in tumor cell targeting and conditional cancer cell killing. One arm of the Gammabody recruits Vgamma9 Vdelta2 T cells, while the other arm recognizes and binds to a specific tumor target present on blood cancers or solid tumors. Our Gammabody drug candidates are designed to activate the Vgamma9 Vdelta2 T cells once both arms are bound to both the gamma delta T cell and the tumor target thereby avoiding broad systemic activation. We believe this approach provides a significant opportunity to address unmet medical needs with the potential to elicit potent and durable responses in patients and may provide a superior therapeutic window compared to other approaches by reducing the risk of on target/off tumor mediated toxicity, and avoid activation of Tregs and broad systemic activation resulting in CRS.

We have generated compelling preclinical data using patient tumor tissues that demonstrate the ability of our Gammabody platform to preferentially kill tumor cells by targeting tumor-associated antigens while relatively sparing healthy cells. Studies in non-human primates, using surrogate Gammabody molecules, indicate that our gamma delta T cell engagers are well tolerated with low activity against healthy cells and low induction of cytokines.

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We believe our Gammabody platform has the potential to develop treatments for patients with a wide variety of cancers, both as monotherapy and in combination with other therapies. We are currently advancing our Gammabody pipeline for the development of potential therapeutics in both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.

Graphic

Company and Corporate Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the Netherlands on February 15, 2016, as a private company with limited liability (besloten vennootschap met beperkte aansprakelijkheid), and upon consummation of our initial public offering of common shares on March 29, 2021, we converted into a Dutch public company with limited liability (naamloze vennootschap).

Our principal executive offices are located at Yalelaan 60, 3584 CM Utrecht, the Netherlands. Our telephone number at this address is +31 6 3000 3035.

Implications of being an emerging growth company

As a company with less than $1.07 billion in revenue during our last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act. As an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of specified reduced disclosure and other requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include:

exemption from the auditor attestation requirement of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, in the assessment of our internal controls over financial reporting, which would otherwise be applicable beginning with the second annual report following consummation of the offering; and
to the extent that we no longer qualify as a foreign private issuer, (i) reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements and (ii) exemptions from the requirements of holding a non-binding advisory vote on executive compensation, including golden parachute compensation.

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We may take advantage of these exemptions until such time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. To the extent that we take advantage of these reduced reporting requirements, the information that we provide shareholders may be different than the information you might obtain from other public companies in which you hold equity interests. We will cease to be an emerging growth company upon the earliest to occur of (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenue; (ii) the date we qualify as a “large accelerated filer” with at least $700 million of equity securities held by non-affiliates; (iii) the issuance, in any three year period, by our company of more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities held by non-affiliates; and (iv) December 31, 2026.

Implications of being a foreign private issuer

We are also considered a “foreign private issuer” under U.S. securities laws. In our capacity as a foreign private issuer, we are exempt from certain rules under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, that impose certain disclosure obligations and procedural requirements for proxy solicitations under Section 14 of the Exchange Act. In addition, members of our board of directors, or Board, and our principal shareholders are exempt from the reporting and “short-swing” profit recovery provisions of Section 16 of the Exchange Act and the rules under the Exchange Act with respect to their purchases and sales of our securities. Moreover, we are not required to file periodic reports and financial statements with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, as frequently or as promptly as U.S. companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act. In addition, we are not required to comply with Regulation FD, which restricts the selective disclosure of material information.

We are also able to report our consolidated financial statements under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) rather than U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (U.S. GAAP).

We may take advantage of these exemptions until such time as we are no longer a foreign private issuer. We will remain a foreign private issuer until the end of the fiscal year following the last date of our second fiscal quarter when more than 50% of our outstanding voting securities are held by U.S. residents and any of the following three circumstances applies: (i) the majority of our members of the Board or executive officers are U.S. citizens or residents; (ii) more than 50% of our assets are located in the United States; or (iii) our business is administered principally in the United States.

Accordingly, the information contained herein may be different from the information you receive from other public companies.

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RISK FACTORS

Investment in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus involves risks. You should carefully consider the risk factors incorporated by reference from our most recent Annual Report on Form 20-F, any subsequent Annual Reports on Form 20-F we file after the date of this prospectus and any updates to those risk factors in our reports on Form 6-K incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and all other information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus or the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, and the risk factors and other information contained in any applicable prospectus supplement, before acquiring any of our securities. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in our securities.

CAPITALIZATION

The following table sets forth our cash, cash equivalents, investments and capitalization as of December 31, 2021, derived from our audited consolidated financial statements incorporated by reference into this prospectus:

(in thousands, except share amounts)

    

    

 

Cash, cash equivalents and investments

$

133,203

Total debt, including current portion

$

4,284

Shareholders’ equity:

Issued capital:

Share capital, 25,775,538 common shares outstanding

$

3,653

Equity-settled employee benefits reserve

5,219

Foreign currency translation reserve

4,042

Additional paid in capital

192,270

Accumulated loss

(78,733)

Total equity (deficit)

118,367

Total capitalization

$

122,651

The table above excludes:

620,347, 1,563,136 and 1,307,150 common shares issuable upon the exercise of options to purchase common shares under our 2018 Stock Option Plan, our 2020 U.S. Stock Option Plan and our 2021 Long-Term Incentive Option Plan, respectively, that were outstanding as of December 31, 2021, with weighted-average exercise prices of $0.01, $5.90 and $6.03 per share, respectively;
1,228,076 common shares reserved for future issuance under the 2021 Long-Term Incentive Plan; and
253,523 common shares reserved for future issuance under our 2021 Employee Stock Purchase Plan.

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement, the net proceeds from our sale of the securities will be used to fund the continued development of our product candidates and for general corporate purposes and other business opportunities, including, but not limited to, working capital, capital expenditures, investments, acquisitions, should we choose to pursue any, and collaborations. We have not determined the amounts we plan to spend on any of the areas listed above or the timing of these expenditures. As a result, our management will have broad discretion to allocate the net proceeds, if any, we receive in connection with securities offered pursuant to this prospectus for any purpose. Pending any use described above, we intend to invest the net proceeds of the global offering in short- and intermediate-term interest-bearing obligations, investment-grade instruments, certificates of deposit or direct or guaranteed obligations of the European Union and U.S. government.

DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never paid or declared any cash dividends in the past, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. We intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the further development and expansion of our business. Under Dutch law, we may only pay dividends and other distributions from our reserves to the extent our shareholders’ equity (eigen vermogen) exceeds the sum of our paid-in and called-up share capital plus the reserves we must maintain under Dutch law or our articles of association and (if it concerns a distribution of profits) after adoption of our statutory annual accounts by our general meeting from which it appears that such dividend distribution is allowed. Subject to those restrictions, any future determination to pay dividends or other distributions from our reserves will be at the discretion of our Board and will depend upon a number of factors, including our results of operations, financial condition, future prospects, contractual restrictions, restrictions imposed by applicable law and other factors we deem relevant.

Under our articles of association, if any preferred shares are or have been outstanding, a dividend is first paid out of our profits, if available for distribution, to the holders or former holders, as applicable, of those preferred shares to the extent they are entitled to such distribution under our articles of association, which we refer to as our preferred dividend. Thereafter, our Board may decide that all or part of the remaining profits shown in our adopted statutory annual accounts will be added to our reserves. After reservation of any such profits, any remaining profits will be at the disposal of the general meeting at the proposal of our Board for distribution on our common shares, subject to applicable restrictions of Dutch law as set out in the previous paragraph. Our Board is permitted, subject to certain requirements and applicable restrictions of Dutch law, to declare interim dividends without the approval of our general meeting. Dividends and other distributions shall be made payable no later than a date determined by us. Claims to dividends and other distributions not made within five years from the date that such dividends or distributions became payable will lapse and any such amounts will be considered to have been forfeited to us (verjaring).

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DESCRIPTION OF SHARE CAPITAL AND ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION

Set forth below is a summary of certain information concerning our share capital as well as a description of certain provisions of our articles of association and relevant provisions of Dutch law. Because the following is only a summary, it does not contain all of the information that may be important to you. The summary includes certain references to and descriptions of material provisions of our articles of association and Dutch law in effect as of the date of this prospectus. The summary below does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to applicable Dutch law and our articles of association, which is filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.

General

We were incorporated under the laws of the Netherlands on February 15, 2016, as a private company with limited liability (besloten vennootschap met beperkte aansprakelijkheid), and upon consummation of our initial public offering in March 2021, we converted into a Dutch public company with limited liability (naamloze vennootschap). Our principal executive offices are located at Yalelaan 60, 3584 CM Utrecht, the Netherlands. Our telephone number at this address is +31 6 3000 3035.

Authorized share capital

Under Dutch law, our authorized share capital is the maximum capital that we may issue without amending our articles of association. An amendment of our articles of association would require a resolution of the general meeting upon proposal by our board of directors. Our authorized share capital is €10,800,000, divided into 45,000,000 common shares and 45,000,000 preferred shares, each with a nominal value of €0.12.

Common shares

The following summarizes the main rights of holders of our common shares:

each holder of common shares is entitled to one vote per share on all matters to be voted on by shareholders generally, including the appointment of directors;
there are no cumulative voting rights;
the holders of our common shares are entitled to dividends and other distributions as may be declared from time to time by us out of funds legally available for that purpose, if any, following payment of the preferred dividend if any preferred shares are or have been outstanding (to the extent holders or former holders of preferred shares are entitled to such distribution under our articles of association);
upon our liquidation and dissolution, the holders of common shares will be entitled to share ratably in the distribution of all of our assets remaining available for distribution after satisfaction of all our liabilities, following payment of the preferred dividend if any preferred shares are or have been outstanding (to the extent holders or former holders of preferred shares are entitled to such distribution under our articles of association); and
the holders of our common shares have pre-emption rights in case of share issuances or the grant of rights to subscribe for shares, except if such rights are limited or excluded by the corporate body authorized to do so and except in such cases as provided by Dutch law and our articles of association.

Shareholders’ register

Pursuant to Dutch law and our articles of association, we must keep our shareholders’ register accurate and current. The Board keeps our shareholders’ register and records names and addresses of all holders of registered shares, showing the date on which the shares were acquired, the date of the acknowledgement by or notification of us as well as the amount paid on each share. The register also includes the names and addresses of those with a usufruct (vruchtgebruik) on registered shares belonging to another or a pledge (pandrecht) in respect of such shares. Any common shares to be issued under this prospectus will be held through DTC. Therefore, DTC or its nominee will be recorded in the shareholders’ register as the holder of those common shares. Our common shares and preferred shares, if any, shall be in registered form (op naam). We may issue share certificates (aandeelbewijzen) for registered shares in such form as may be approved by our Board.

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Corporate objectives

Pursuant to the articles of association, our main corporate objectives are:

to, either individually or jointly or with other entities, engage in cellular therapy, immunotherapy and other oncological therapies and the fight against cancer (cells), as well as the development of products, intellectual property, the acquiring thereof and to register patentable findings and the performing of medical, commercial and industrial activities in the widest sense of the word;
to incorporate, to cooperate with, to participate in, to hold any other interest in, to take over and to manage or supervise companies and other legal entities, partnerships and businesses;
to finance companies and other legal entities, partnerships and businesses also by providing securities or guarantees, by warranting performance in any other way and by assuming liability, whether jointly and severally or otherwise, in respect of obligations;
to acquire, manage and alienate registered property and items of property in general, securities and other valuable papers, to borrow and to lend funds and to grant guarantees on behalf of third parties;
to make periodic payments, to administer pension schemes and to arrange for annuity contracts; and
to do anything which, in the widest sense, is connected with or may be conducive to the objectives described above.

Limitations on the rights to own securities

Our common shares may be issued to individuals, corporations, trusts, estates of deceased individuals, partnerships and unincorporated associations of persons. Our articles of association contain no limitation on the rights to own our shares and no limitation on the rights of non-residents of the Netherlands or foreign shareholders to hold or exercise voting rights. Our preferred shares shall only be issued to the protective foundation, if and when incorporated.

Limitation on liability and indemnification matters

Under Dutch law, our directors may be held liable for damages in the event of improper or negligent performance of their duties. They may be held jointly and severally liable for damages to our company and to third parties for infringement of our articles of association or of certain provisions of Dutch law. In certain circumstances, they may also incur additional specific civil and criminal liabilities. Subject to certain exceptions, our articles of association provide for indemnification of our current and former directors and other current and former officers and employees as designated by our Board. No indemnification under our articles of association shall be given to an indemnified person:

if a competent court or arbitral tribunal has established, without having (or no longer having) the possibility for appeal, that the acts or omissions of such indemnified person that led to the financial losses, damages, expenses, suit, claim, action or legal proceedings as described above are of an unlawful nature (including acts or omissions which are considered to constitute malice, gross negligence, intentional recklessness and/or serious culpability attributable to such indemnified person);
to the extent that his or her financial losses, damages and expenses are covered under insurance and the relevant insurer has settled, or has provided reimbursement for, these financial losses, damages and expenses (or has irrevocably undertaken to do so);
in relation to proceedings brought by such indemnified person against our company, except for proceedings brought to enforce indemnification to which he is entitled pursuant to our articles of association, pursuant to an agreement between such indemnified person and our company which has been approved by our Board or pursuant to insurance taken out by our company for the benefit of such indemnified person; and
for any financial losses, damages or expenses incurred in connection with a settlement of any proceedings effected without our prior consent.

Under our articles of association, our Board may stipulate additional terms, conditions and restrictions in relation to the indemnification described above.

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Shareholders’ meetings

General meetings may be held in Amsterdam, Arnhem, Assen, The Hague, Haarlem, ‘s-Hertogenbosch, Groningen, Leeuwarden, Lelystad, Maastricht, Middelburg, Rotterdam, Schiphol (Haarlemmermeer), Utrecht or Zwolle, all in the Netherlands. The annual general meeting must be held within six months of the end of each financial year. Additional extraordinary general meetings may also be held, whenever considered appropriate by our board of directors and shall be held within three months after our board of directors has considered it to be likely that our shareholders’ equity (eigen vermogen) has decreased to an amount equal to or lower than half of our paid-in and called up share capital, in order to discuss the measures to be taken if so required.

Pursuant to Dutch law, one or more shareholders or others with meeting rights under Dutch law who jointly represent at least one-tenth of our issued share capital may request us to convene a general meeting, setting out in detail the matters to be discussed. If we have not taken the steps necessary to ensure that such meeting can be held within six weeks after the request, the proponent(s) may, on their application, be authorized by the competent Dutch court in preliminary relief proceedings to convene a general meeting. The court shall disallow the application if it does not appear that the proponent(s) has/have previously requested our board of directors to convene a general meeting and our Board has not taken the necessary steps so that the general meeting could be held within six weeks after the request.

General meetings must be convened by an announcement published in a Dutch daily newspaper with national distribution. The notice must state the agenda, the time and place of the meeting, the record date (if any), the procedure for participating in the general meeting by proxy, as well as other information as required by Dutch law. The notice must be given at least 15 calendar days prior to the day of the meeting. The agenda for the annual general meeting shall include, among other things, the adoption of our statutory annual accounts, appropriation of our profits and proposals relating to the composition of the Board, including the filling of any vacancies. In addition, the agenda shall include such items as have been included therein by our board of directors. The agenda shall also include such items requested by one or more shareholders or others with meeting rights under Dutch law representing at least 3% of our issued share capital. These requests must be made in writing or by electronic means and received by us at least 60 days before the day of the meeting. No resolutions shall be adopted on items other than those that have been included in the agenda.

In accordance with the Dutch Corporate Governance Code (DCGC) and our articles of association, shareholders having the right to put an item on the agenda under the rules described above shall exercise such right only after consulting the board of directors in that respect. If one or more shareholders intend to request that an item be put on the agenda that may result in a change in our strategy (for example, the dismissal of directors), our board of directors must be given the opportunity to invoke a reasonable period to respond to such intention. Such period shall not exceed 180 days (or such other period as may be stipulated for such purpose by Dutch law and/or the DCGC from time to time). If invoked, our Board must use such response period for further deliberation and constructive consultation, in any event with the shareholder(s) concerned, and shall explore the alternatives. At the end of the response time, our Board shall report on this consultation and the exploration of alternatives to the general meeting. The response period may be invoked only once for any given general meeting and shall not apply: (a) in respect of a matter for which a response period has been previously invoked; or (b) if a shareholder holds at least 75% of our issued share capital as a consequence of a successful public bid. The response period may also be invoked in response to shareholders or others with meeting rights under Dutch law requesting that a general meeting be convened, as described above.

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In addition, our Board can invoke a cooling-off period of up to 250 days when shareholders, using their right to have items added to the agenda for a general meeting or their right to request a general meeting, propose an agenda item for our general meeting to dismiss, suspend or appoint one or more members of our Board (or to amend any provision in our articles of association dealing with those matters) or when a public offer for our company is made or announced without our support, provided, in each case, that our Board believes that such proposal or offer materially conflicts with the interests of our company and its business. During a cooling-off period, our general meeting cannot dismiss, suspend or appoint our directors (or amend the provisions in our articles of association dealing with those matters) except at the proposal of our Board. During a cooling-off period, our Board must gather all relevant information necessary for a careful decision-making process and at least consult with shareholders representing 3% or more of our issued share capital at the time the cooling-off period was invoked, as well as with our Dutch works council (if we or, under certain circumstances, any of our subsidiaries would have one). Formal statements expressed by these stakeholders during such consultations must be published on our website to the extent these stakeholders have approved that publication. Ultimately one week following the last day of the cooling-off period, our Board must publish a report in respect of its policy and conduct of affairs during the cooling-off period on our website. This report must remain available for inspection by shareholders and others with meeting rights under Dutch law at our office and must be tabled for discussion at the next general meeting. Shareholders representing at least 3% of our issued share capital may request the Enterprise Chamber of the Amsterdam Court of Appeal, or the Enterprise Chamber (Ondernemingskamer), for early termination of the cooling-off period. The Enterprise Chamber must rule in favor of the request if the shareholders can demonstrate that:

our Board, in light of the circumstances at hand when the cooling-off period was invoked, could not reasonably have concluded that the relevant proposal or hostile offer constituted a material conflict with the interests of our company and its business;
our Board cannot reasonably believe that a continuation of the cooling-off period would contribute to careful policy-making; or
other defensive measures, having the same purpose, nature and scope as the cooling-off period, have been activated during the cooling-off period and have not since been terminated or suspended within a reasonable period at the relevant shareholders’ request (i.e., no ‘stacking’ of defensive measures).

The general meeting is presided over by the chairperson of our Board. If no chairperson has been elected or if he or she is not present at the meeting, the general meeting shall be presided over by the vice-chairperson of our Board. If no vice-chairperson has been elected or if he or she is not present at the meeting, the general meeting shall be presided over by a person designated in accordance with our articles of association. Directors may always attend a general meeting. In these meetings, they have an advisory vote. The chairperson of the meeting may decide at his or her discretion to admit other persons to the meeting.

All shareholders and others with meeting rights under Dutch law are authorized to attend the general meeting, to address the meeting and, in so far as they have such right, to vote pro rata to his or her shareholding. Shareholders may exercise these rights, if they are the holders of shares on the record date, if any, as required by Dutch law, which is currently the 28th day before the day of the general meeting. Under our articles of association, shareholders and others with meeting rights under Dutch law must notify us in writing or by electronic means of their identity and intention to attend the general meeting. This notice must be received by us ultimately on the seventh day prior to the general meeting, unless indicated otherwise when such meeting is convened.

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Quorum and Voting Requirements

Each common and each preferred share, if any are outstanding, share confers the right on the holder to cast one vote at the general meeting. Shareholders may vote by proxy. No votes may be cast at a general meeting on shares held by us or our subsidiaries or on shares for which we or our subsidiaries hold depository receipts. Nonetheless, the holders of a usufruct (vruchtgebruik) and the holders of a right of pledge (pandrecht) in respect of shares held by us or our subsidiaries in our share capital are not excluded from the right to vote on such shares, if the usufruct (vruchtgebruik) or the right of pledge (pandrecht) was granted prior to the time such shares were acquired by us or any of our subsidiaries. Neither we nor any of our subsidiaries may cast votes in respect of a share on which we or such subsidiary holds a usufruct (vruchtgebruik) or a right of pledge (pandrecht). Shares which are not entitled to voting rights pursuant to the preceding sentences will not be taken into account for the purpose of determining the number of shareholders that vote and that are present or represented, or the amount of the share capital that is provided or that is represented at a general meeting.

Decisions of the general meeting are taken by a simple majority of votes cast, except where Dutch law or our articles of association provide for a qualified majority or unanimity and/or a quorum.

Directors

Appointment of directors

Our directors will be appointed by the general meeting upon binding nomination by our board of directors. However, the general meeting may at all times overrule a binding nomination by a resolution adopted by at least a two-thirds majority of the votes cast, provided such majority represents more than half of the issued share capital. If the general meeting overrules a binding nomination, the board of directors has the exclusive right to make a new nomination.

Prior to the closing of this offering, our board of directors shall adopt a diversity policy for the composition of our board of directors, as well as a profile for the composition of our board of directors. The board of directors shall make any nomination for the appointment of a director with due regard to the rules and principles set forth in such diversity policy and profile, as applicable.

At a general meeting, a resolution to appoint a director can only be passed in respect of candidates whose names are stated for that purpose in the agenda of that general meeting or in the explanatory notes thereto.

Duties and liabilities of directors

Under Dutch law, the Board is charged with the management of the company, subject to the restrictions contained in our articles of association. Our executive directors manage our day-to-day business and operations and implement our strategy. Our non-executive directors focus on the supervision on the policy and functioning of the performance of the duties of all of our directors and our general state of affairs. The directors may divide their tasks among themselves in or pursuant to internal rules and in accordance with Dutch law. Each director has a statutory duty to act in the corporate interest of our company and its business. Under Dutch law, the corporate interest extends to the interests of all corporate stakeholders, such as shareholders, creditors, employees, customers and suppliers. The duty to act in the corporate interest of our company also applies in the event of a proposed sale or break-up of our company, provided that the circumstances generally dictate how such duty is to be applied and how the respective interests of various groups of stakeholders should be weighed.

Our Board is entitled to represent our company. The power to represent our company also vests in our Chief Executive Officer acting individually or any two other executive directors acting jointly.

Dividends and other distributions

Under Dutch law, we may only pay dividends and other distributions from our reserves to the extent our shareholders’ equity (eigen vermogen) exceeds the sum of our paid-in and called-up share capital plus the reserves we must maintain under Dutch law or our articles of association and (if it concerns a distribution of profits) after adoption of our statutory annual accounts by our general meeting from which it appears that such dividend distribution is allowed.

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Under our articles of association, if any preferred shares are or have been outstanding, a dividend is first paid out of our profits, if available for distribution, to the holders or former holders, as applicable, of those preferred shares to the extent they are entitled to such distribution under our articles of association, which we refer to as our preferred dividend. Thereafter, our Board, may decide that all or part of the remaining profits shown in our adopted statutory annual accounts will be added to our reserves. After reservation of any such profits, any remaining profits will be at the disposal of the general meeting at the proposal of our board of directors for distribution on our common shares, subject to applicable restrictions of Dutch law as set out in the previous paragraph. Our board of directors, is permitted, subject to certain requirements and applicable restrictions of Dutch law, to declare interim dividends without the approval of our general meeting. Dividends and other distributions shall be made payable no later than a date determined by us. Claims to dividends and other distributions not made within five years from the date that such dividends or distributions became payable will lapse and any such amounts will be considered to have been forfeited to us (verjaring).

Exchange controls

Under Dutch law, there are no exchange controls applicable to the transfer to persons outside of the Netherlands of dividends or other distributions with respect to, or of the proceeds from the sale of, shares of a Dutch company, subject to applicable restrictions under sanctions and measures, including those concerning export control, pursuant to European Union regulations, the Sanctions Act 1977 (Sanctiewet 1977) or other legislation, applicable anti-boycott regulations, applicable anti-money-laundering regulations and similar rules. There are no special restrictions in our articles of association or Dutch law that limit the right of shareholders who are not citizens or residents of the Netherlands to hold or vote shares.

Squeeze out procedures

A shareholder who holds at least 95% of our issued share capital for his or her own account, alone or together with group companies, may initiate proceedings against our other shareholders jointly for the transfer of their shares to such shareholder. The proceedings are held before the Enterprise Chamber of the Amsterdam Court of Appeal, or the Enterprise Chamber (Ondernemingskamer), and can be instituted by means of a writ of summons served upon each of the other shareholders in accordance with the provisions of the Dutch Code of Civil Procedure (Wetboek van Burgerlijke Rechtsvordering). The Enterprise Chamber may grant the claim for squeeze-out in relation to the other shareholders and will determine the price to be paid for the shares, if necessary, after appointment of one or three experts who will offer an opinion to the Enterprise Chamber on the value to be paid for the shares of the other shareholders. Once the order to transfer becomes final before the Enterprise Chamber, the person acquiring the shares shall give written notice of the date and place of payment and the price to the holders of the shares to be acquired whose addresses are known to him. Unless the addresses of all of them are known to the acquiring person, such person is required to publish the same in a Dutch daily newspaper with a national circulation.

Dissolution and liquidation

Under our articles of association, we may be dissolved by a resolution of the general meeting, subject to a proposal of our Board. In the event of a dissolution, the liquidation shall be effected by our board of directors, unless the general meeting decides otherwise. During liquidation, the provisions of our articles of association will remain in force as far as possible. To the extent that any assets remain after payment of all of our liabilities, if any preferred shares are or have been outstanding, a liquidation distribution equal to the preferred dividend is first paid out to the holders or former holders of those preferred shares (to the extent they are entitled to such distribution under our articles of association). Thereafter, any remaining assets shall be distributed to our shareholders in proportion to their number of shares.

Dutch corporate governance codes

We are subject to the DCGC. The DCGC contains principles and best practice provisions on corporate governance that regulate relations between the board of directors and the general meeting and matters in respect of financial reporting, auditors, disclosure, compliance and enforcement standards. The DCGC is based on a “comply or explain” principle. Accordingly, companies must disclose in their statutory annual reports whether they comply with the provisions of the DCGC. If a company subject to the DCGC does not comply with those provisions, that company would be required to give the reasons for such non-compliance. We do not comply with all best practice provisions of the DCGC. Our deviations from the DCGC are summarized in our Dutch annual board report from time to time.

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Dutch financial reporting supervision act

On the basis of the Dutch Financial Reporting Supervision Act (Wet toezicht financiële verslaggeving), or the FRSA, the Dutch Authority for the Financial Markets (Stichting Autoriteit Financiële Markten), or AFM, supervises the application of financial reporting standards by Dutch companies whose securities are listed on a Dutch or foreign stock exchange.

Pursuant to the FRSA, the AFM has an independent right to (i) request an explanation from us regarding our application of the applicable financial reporting standards if, based on publicly known facts or circumstances, it has reason to doubt that our financial reporting meets such standards and (ii) recommend to us the making available of further explanations. If we do not comply with such a request or recommendation, the AFM may request that the Enterprise Chamber (Ondernemingskamer) order us to (a) make available further explanations as recommended by the AFM, (b) provide an explanation of the way we have applied the applicable financial reporting standards to our financial reports or (c) prepare or restate our financial reports in accordance with the Enterprise Chamber’s orders.

Comparison of Dutch corporate law and our articles of association and U.S. corporate law

The following comparison between Dutch corporate law, which applies to us, and Delaware corporation law, the law under which many publicly listed corporations in the United States are incorporated, discusses additional matters not otherwise described in this prospectus. Although we believe this summary is materially accurate, the summary is subject to Dutch law, including Book 2 of the Dutch Civil Code and the DCGC and Delaware corporation law, including the Delaware General Corporation Law.

Corporate governance

Duties of directors

The Netherlands. Contemporaneous with the consummation of our initial public offering, we adopted a one-tier board structure consisting of a board of directors consisting of executive and non-executive directors.

Under Dutch law, the board of directors is charged with the management of the company, subject to the restrictions contained in our articles of association. Our executive directors manage our day-to-day business and operations and implement our strategy. Our non-executive directors focus on the supervision on the policy and functioning of the performance of the duties of all of our directors and our general state of affairs. The directors may divide their tasks among themselves in or pursuant to internal rules and in accordance with Dutch law. Each director has a statutory duty to act in the corporate interest of our company and its business. Under Dutch law, the corporate interest extends to the interests of all corporate stakeholders, such as shareholders, creditors, employees, customers and suppliers. The duty to act in the corporate interest of our company also applies in the event of a proposed sale or break-up of our company, provided that the circumstances generally dictate how such duty is to be applied and how the respective interests of various groups of stakeholders should be weighed.

Any resolution of our Board regarding a material change in our identity or character requires approval of the general meeting. The absence of the approval of the general meeting shall result in the relevant resolution being null and void but shall not affect the powers of representation of the board or of the directors vis-à-vis third parties.

Our Board is entitled to represent our company. The power to represent our company also vests in our Chief Executive Officer acting individually or any two other directors acting jointly.

Delaware. The board of directors bears the ultimate responsibility for managing the business and affairs of a corporation. In discharging this function, directors of a Delaware corporation owe fiduciary duties of care and loyalty to the corporation and to its stockholders. Delaware courts have decided that the directors of a Delaware corporation are required to exercise informed business judgment in the performance of their duties. Informed business judgment means that the directors have informed themselves of all material information reasonably available to them. Delaware courts have also imposed a heightened standard of conduct upon directors of a Delaware corporation who take any action designed to defeat a threatened change in control of the corporation. In addition, under Delaware law, when the board of directors of a Delaware corporation approves the sale or break-up of a corporation, the board of directors may, in certain circumstances, have a duty to obtain the highest value reasonably available to the stockholders.

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Director terms

The Netherlands. The DCGC provides the following best practice recommendations on the terms for tenure of directors:

executive directors should be appointed for a maximum period of four years, without limiting the number of consecutive terms executive directors may serve; and
non-executive directors should be appointed for two consecutive periods of no more than four years. Thereafter, non-executive directors may be reappointed for a maximum of two consecutive periods of no more than two years, provided that the reasons for any reappointment after an eight-year term of office should be disclosed in our statutory annual management report.

The general meeting shall at all times be entitled to suspend or dismiss a director. Under our articles of association, the general meeting may only adopt a resolution to suspend or dismiss a director by at least a two-thirds majority of the votes cast, provided that such majority represents more than half of our issued share capital, unless the resolution is passed at the proposal of our board of directors, in which latter case a simple majority of the votes cast is sufficient. If a director is suspended and the general meeting does not resolve to dismiss him or her within three months from the date of such suspension, the suspension shall lapse.

Delaware. The Delaware General Corporation Law generally provides for a one-year term for directors, but permits directorships to be divided into up to three classes with up to three-year terms, with the years for each class expiring in different years, if permitted by the certificate of incorporation, an initial bylaw or a bylaw adopted by the stockholders. A director elected to serve a term on a “classified” board may not be removed by stockholders without cause. There is no limit in the number of terms a director may serve.

Director vacancies

The Netherlands. Our Board can temporarily fill vacancies in its midst caused by temporary absence or incapacity of directors without requiring a shareholder vote. If all of our directors are absent or incapacitated, our management shall be attributed to the person who most recently ceased to hold office as the chairperson of our Board, provided that if such former chairperson is unwilling or unable to accept that position, our management shall be attributed to the person who most recently ceased to hold office as our Chief Executive Officer. If such former Chief Executive Officer is also unwilling or unable to accept that position, our management shall be attributed to one or more persons whom the general meeting. The person(s) charged with our management in this manner may designate one or more persons to be charged with our management instead of, or together with, such person(s).

Under Dutch law, directors are appointed and re-appointed by the general meeting. Under our articles of association, our directors will be appointed by the general meeting upon binding nomination by our Board. However, the general meeting may at all times overrule a binding nomination by a resolution adopted by at least a two-thirds majority of the votes cast, provided such majority represents more than half of the issued share capital. If the general meeting overrules a binding nomination, the board of directors has the exclusive right to make a new nomination.

Delaware. The Delaware General Corporation Law provides that vacancies and newly created directorships may be filled by a majority of the directors then in office (even though less than a quorum) unless (i) otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation or bylaws of the corporation or (ii) the certificate of incorporation directs that a particular class of shares is to elect such director, in which case any other directors elected by such class, or a sole remaining director elected by such class, will fill such vacancy.

Conflict-of-interest transactions

The Netherlands. Under Dutch law and our articles of association, our directors shall not take part in any discussion or decision-making that involves a subject or transaction in relation to which he or she has a direct or indirect personal conflict of interest with us. Such a conflict of interest would generally arise if the director concerned is unable to serve our interests and the business connected with our company with the required level of integrity and objectivity due to the existence of the conflicting personal interest. Our articles of association provide that if, as a result of conflicts of interests, no resolution of the board of directors can be adopted, the resolution may nonetheless be adopted by the board of directors as if none of the directors had a conflict of interest. In that latter case, each director is entitled to participate in the discussion and decision-making process and to cast a vote.

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The DCGC provides the following best practice recommendations in relation to conflicts of interests in respect of directors:

A director should report any conflict of interest or potential conflict of interest in a transaction that is of material significance to the company and/or to such person to the chairperson of the board of directors without delay and should provide all relevant information in that regard, including the relevant information pertaining to his or her spouse, registered partner or other life companion, foster child and relatives by blood or marriage up to the second degree. If the chairperson of the board of directors has a conflict of interest or potential conflict of interest, he or she should report this to the vice-chairperson of the board of directors without delay.
The board of directors should decide, outside the presence of the director concerned, whether there is a conflict of interest.
All transactions in which there are conflicts of interest with directors should be agreed on terms that are customary in the market.
Decisions to enter into transactions in which there are conflicts of interest with directors that are of material significance to the company and/or to the relevant directors should require the approval of the board of directors. Such transactions should be published in our statutory annual report, together with a description of the conflict of interest and a declaration that the relevant best practice provisions of the DCGC have been complied with.

Delaware. The Delaware General Corporation Law generally permits transactions involving a Delaware corporation and an interested director of that corporation if:

the material facts as to the director’s relationship or interest are disclosed and a majority of disinterested directors consent;
the material facts are disclosed as to the director’s relationship or interest and a majority of shares entitled to vote thereon consent; or
the transaction is fair to the corporation at the time it is authorized by the board of directors, a committee of the board of directors or the stockholders.

Proxy voting by directors

The Netherlands. An absent director may issue a proxy for a specific meeting of the board of directors but only to another director in writing or by electronic means.

Delaware. A director of a Delaware corporation may not issue a proxy representing the director’s voting rights as a director.

Shareholder rights

Voting rights

The Netherlands. In accordance with Dutch law and our articles of association, each issued common share and preferred share, if any are outstanding, confers the right to cast one vote at the general meeting. No votes may be cast at a general meeting on shares held by us or our subsidiaries or on shares for which we or our subsidiaries hold depository receipts. Nonetheless, the holders of a usufruct (vruchtgebruik) and the holders of a right of pledge (pandrecht) in respect of shares held by us or our subsidiaries in our share capital are not excluded from the right to vote on such shares, if the usufruct (vruchtgebruik) or the right of pledge (pandrecht) was granted prior to the time such shares were acquired by us or any of our subsidiaries. Neither we nor any of our subsidiaries may cast votes in respect of a share on which we or such subsidiary holds a usufruct (vruchtgebruik) or a right of pledge (pandrecht). Shares which are not entitled to voting rights pursuant to the preceding sentences will not be taken into account for the purpose of determining the number of shareholders that vote and that are present or represented, or the amount of the share capital that is provided or that is represented at a general meeting.

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For each general meeting, the board of directors may determine that a record date will be applied in order to establish which shareholders are entitled to attend and vote at the general meeting. Such record date shall be the 28th day prior to the day of the general meeting. The record date and the manner in which shareholders can register and exercise their rights will be set out in the notice of the meeting which must be published in a Dutch daily newspaper with national distribution at least 15 calendar days prior to the meeting (and such notice may therefore be published after the record date for such meeting). Under our articles of association, shareholders and others with meeting rights under Dutch law must notify us in writing or by electronic means of their identity and intention to attend the general meeting. This notice must be received by us ultimately on the seventh day prior to the general meeting, unless indicated otherwise when such meeting is convened.

Delaware. Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, each stockholder is entitled to one vote per share of stock, unless the certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. In addition, the certificate of incorporation may provide for cumulative voting at all elections of directors of the corporation, or at elections held under specified circumstances. Either the certificate of incorporation or the bylaws may specify the number of shares and/or the amount of other securities that must be represented at a meeting in order to constitute a quorum, but in no event will a quorum consist of less than one-third of the shares entitled to vote at a meeting.

Stockholders as of the record date for the meeting are entitled to vote at the meeting, and the board of directors may fix a record date that is no more than 60 nor less than 10 days before the date of the meeting, and if no record date is set then the record date is the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or if notice is waived then the record date is the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held. The determination of the stockholders of record entitled to notice or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting, but the board of directors may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting.

Shareholder proposals

The Netherlands. Pursuant to Dutch law, one or more shareholders or others with meeting rights under Dutch law who jointly represent at least one-tenth of our issued share capital may request us to convene a general meeting, setting out in detail the matters to be discussed. If we have not taken the steps necessary to ensure that such meeting can be held within six weeks after the request, the proponent(s) may, on their application, be authorized by the competent Dutch court in preliminary relief proceedings to convene a general meeting. The court shall disallow the application if it does not appear that the proponent(s) has/have previously requested our Board to convene a general meeting and our Board has not taken the necessary steps so that the general meeting could be held within six weeks after the request.

Pursuant to Dutch law, and subject to the applicable requirements, the agenda for our general meetings shall also include such items requested by one or more shareholders or others with meeting rights under Dutch law representing at least 3% of our issued share capital. These requests must be made in writing or by electronic means and received by us at least 60 days before the day of the meeting. No resolutions shall be adopted on items other than those that have been included in the agenda.

In accordance with the DCGC and our articles of association, shareholders having the right to put an item on the agenda under the rules described above shall exercise such right only after consulting board of directors in that respect. If one or more shareholders intend to request that an item be put on the agenda that may result in a change in our strategy (for example, the dismissal of directors), our Board must be given the opportunity to invoke a reasonable period to respond to such intention. Such period shall not exceed 180 days (or such other period as may be stipulated for such purpose by Dutch law and/or the DCGC from time to time). If invoked, our Board must use such response period for further deliberation and constructive consultation, in any event with the shareholders(s) concerned, and shall explore the alternatives. At the end of the response time, our board of directors shall report on this consultation and the exploration of alternatives to the general meeting. The response period may be invoked only once for any given general meeting and shall not apply: (a) in respect of a matter for which a response period has been previously invoked; or (b) if a shareholder holds at least 75% of our issued share capital as a consequence of a successful public bid. The response period may also be invoked in response to shareholders or others with meeting rights under Dutch law requesting that a general meeting be convened, as described above.

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In addition, as noted above, our Board can invoke a cooling-off period of up to 250 days when shareholders, using their right to have items added to the agenda for a general meeting or their right to request a general meeting, propose an agenda item for our general meeting to dismiss, suspend or appoint one or more members of our Board (or to amend any provision in our articles of association dealing with those matters) or when a public offer for our company is made or announced without our support, provided, in each case, that our Board believes that such proposal or offer materially conflicts with the interests of our company and its business. During a cooling-off period, our general meeting cannot dismiss, suspend or appoint our directors (or amend the provisions in our articles of association dealing with those matters) except at the proposal of our Board. During a cooling-off period, our Board must gather all relevant information necessary for a careful decision-making process and at least consult with shareholders representing 3% or more of our issued share capital at the time the cooling-off period was invoked, as well as with our Dutch works council (if we or, under certain circumstances, any of our subsidiaries would have one). Formal statements expressed by these stakeholders during such consultations must be published on our website to the extent these stakeholders have approved that publication. Ultimately one week following the last day of the cooling-off period, our Board must publish a report in respect of its policy and conduct of affairs during the cooling-off period on our website. This report must remain available for inspection by shareholders and others with meeting rights under Dutch law at our office and must be tabled for discussion at the next general meeting. Shareholders representing at least 3% of our issued share capital may request the Enterprise Chamber for early termination of the cooling-off period. The Enterprise Chamber must rule in favor of the request if the shareholders can demonstrate that:

our Board, in light of the circumstances at hand when the cooling-off period was invoked, could not reasonably have concluded that the relevant proposal or hostile offer constituted a material conflict with the interests of our company and its business;
our Board cannot reasonably believe that a continuation of the cooling-off period would contribute to careful policy-making; or
other defensive measures, having the same purpose, nature and scope as the cooling-off period, have been activated during the cooling-off period and have not since been terminated or suspended within a reasonable period at the relevant shareholders’ request (i.e., no ‘stacking’ of defensive measures).

Delaware. Delaware law does not specifically grant stockholders the right to bring business before an annual or special meeting. However, if a Delaware corporation is subject to the SEC’s proxy rules, a stockholder who owns at least €2,000 in market value, or 1% of the corporation’s securities entitled to vote, and has owned such securities for at least one year, may propose a matter for a vote at an annual or special meeting in accordance with those rules.

Action by written consent

The Netherlands. Under Dutch law, shareholders’ resolutions may be adopted in writing without holding a meeting of shareholders, provided that (i) the articles of association allow such action by written consent, (ii) the company has not issued bearer shares or, with its cooperation, depository receipts for shares in its capital, and (iii) the resolution is adopted unanimously by all shareholders that are entitled to vote. Although our articles of association allow for shareholders’ resolutions to be adopted in writing, the requirement of unanimity renders the adoption of shareholder resolutions without holding a meeting not feasible for us as a publicly traded company.

Delaware. Although permitted by Delaware law, publicly listed companies do not typically permit stockholders of a corporation to take action by written consent.

Appraisal rights

The Netherlands. Subject to certain exceptions, Dutch law does not recognize the concept of appraisal or dissenters’ rights. However, Dutch law does provide for squeeze-out procedures as described under “Dividends and Other Distributions - Squeeze-Out Procedures.” Also, Dutch law provides for cash exit rights in certain situations for dissenting shareholders of a company organized under Dutch law entering into certain types of mergers. In those situations, a dissenting shareholder may file a claim with the Dutch company for compensation. Such compensation shall then be determined by one or more independent experts. The shares of such shareholder that are subject to such claim will cease to exist as of the moment of entry into effect of the merger.

Delaware. The Delaware General Corporation Law provides for stockholder appraisal rights, or the right to demand payment in cash of the judicially determined fair value of the stockholder’s shares, in connection with certain mergers and consolidations.

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Shareholder suits

The Netherlands. In the event a third-party is liable to a Dutch company, only the company itself can bring a civil action against that party. The individual shareholders do not have the right to bring an action on behalf of the company. Only in the event that the cause for the liability of a third-party to the company also constitutes a tortious act directly against a shareholder does that shareholder have an individual right of action against such third-party in its own name. Dutch law provides for the possibility to initiate such actions collectively, in which a foundation or an association can act as a class representative and has standing to commence proceedings and claim damages if certain criteria are met. The court will first determine if those criteria are met. If so, the case will go forward as a class action on the merits after a period allowing class members to opt out from the case has lapsed. All members of the class who are residents of the Netherlands and who did not opt-out will be bound to the outcome of the case. Residents of other countries must actively opt in in order to be able to benefit from the class action. The defendant is not required to file defenses on the merits prior to the merits phase having commenced. It is possible for the parties to reach a settlement during the merits phase. Such a settlement can be approved by the court, which approval will then bind the members of the class, subject to a second opt-out. This new regime applies to claims brought after January 1, 2020 and which relate to certain events that occurred prior to that date. For other matters, the old Dutch class actions regime will apply. Under the old regime, no monetary damages can be sought. Also, a judgment rendered under the old regime will not bind individual class members. Even though Dutch law does not provide for derivative suits, our directors and officers can still be subject to liability under U.S. securities laws.

Delaware. Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a stockholder may bring a derivative action on behalf of the corporation to enforce the rights of the corporation. An individual also may commence a class action suit on behalf of himself and other similarly situated stockholders where the requirements for maintaining a class action under Delaware law have been met. A person may institute and maintain such a suit only if that person was a stockholder at the time of the transaction which is the subject of the suit. In addition, under Delaware case law, the plaintiff normally must be a stockholder at the time of the transaction that is the subject of the suit and throughout the duration of the derivative suit. Delaware law also requires that the derivative plaintiff make a demand on the directors of the corporation to assert the corporate claim before the suit may be prosecuted by the derivative plaintiff in court, unless such a demand would be futile.

Repurchase of shares

The Netherlands. Under Dutch law, when issuing shares, a public company such as ours may not subscribe for newly issued shares in its own capital. Such company may, however, subject to certain restrictions of Dutch law and its articles of association, acquire shares in its own capital. A listed public company such as ours may acquire fully paid shares in its own capital at any time for no valuable consideration. Furthermore, subject to certain provisions of Dutch law and its articles of association, such company may repurchase fully paid shares in its own capital if (i) the company’s shareholders’ equity (eigen vermogen) less the payment required to make the acquisition does not fall below the sum of paid-in and called-up share capital plus any reserves required by Dutch law or its articles of association and (ii) the aggregate nominal value of shares of the company which the company acquires, holds or on which the company holds a pledge (pandrecht) or which are held by a subsidiary of the company, would not exceed 50% of its then-current issued share capital.

An acquisition by us of shares in our capital for a consideration must be authorized by our general meeting. Such authorization may be granted for a maximum period of 18 months and must specify the number of shares that may be acquired, the manner in which shares may be acquired and the price limits within which shares may be acquired. The actual acquisition may only be effected pursuant to a resolution of our board of directors. Our Board has been authorized for a period of 18 months following our conversion into a public company (naamloze vennootschap) on March 25, 2021 to cause the repurchase of our common shares (or depository receipts for our common shares) by us of up to 10% of our issued share capital, for a price per share not exceeding 110% of the average market price of our common shares on Nasdaq (such average market price being the average of the closing prices on each of the five consecutive trading days preceding the date the acquisition is agreed upon by us).

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No authorization of the general meeting is required if fully paid common shares are acquired by us with the intention of transferring such common shares to our employees under an applicable employee share purchase plan.

Delaware. Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a corporation may purchase or redeem its own shares unless the capital of the corporation is impaired or the purchase or redemption would cause an impairment of the capital of the corporation. A Delaware corporation may, however, purchase or redeem out of capital any of its preferred shares or, if no preferred shares are outstanding, any of its own shares if such shares will be retired upon acquisition and the capital of the corporation will be reduced in accordance with specified limitations.

Anti-takeover provisions

The Netherlands. Under Dutch law, various protective measures are possible and permissible within the boundaries set by Dutch law and Dutch case law.

Certain provisions of our articles of association also may make it more difficult for a third-party to acquire control of us or effect a change in the composition of our board of directors. These include:

the authorization of a class of preferred shares that may be issued to a protective foundation, in such a manner as to dilute the interest of any potential acquirer or shareholder activist”;
a provision that our directors are appointed on the basis of a binding nomination prepared by our Board which can only be overruled by a two-thirds majority of votes cast representing more than half of our issued share capital;
a provision that our directors may only be dismissed by the general meeting by a two-thirds majority of votes cast representing more than half of our issued share capital, unless the dismissal is proposed by our board of directors in which latter case a simple majority of the votes cast would be sufficient;
a provision allowing, among other matters, the former chairperson of our board of directors or our former Chief Executive Officer to manage our affairs if all of our directors are dismissed and to appoint others to be charged with our affairs, including the preparation of a binding nomination for directors as discussed above, until new directors are appointed by the general meeting on the basis of such binding nomination; and
a requirement that certain matters, including an amendment of our articles of association, may only be resolved upon by our general meeting if proposed by our Bboard.

Dutch law also allows for staggered multi-year terms of our directors, as a result of which only part of our directors may be subject to appointment or re-appointment in any given year.

Delaware. In addition to other aspects of Delaware law governing fiduciary duties of directors during a potential takeover, the Delaware General Corporation Law also contains a business combination statute that protects Delaware companies from hostile takeovers and from actions following the takeover by prohibiting some transactions once an acquirer has gained a significant holding in the corporation.

Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law prohibits “business combinations,” including mergers, sales and leases of assets, issuances of securities and similar transactions by a corporation or a subsidiary with an interested stockholder that beneficially owns 15% or more of a corporation’s voting stock, within three years after the person becomes an interested stockholder, unless:

the transaction that will cause the person to become an interested stockholder is approved by the board of directors of the target prior to the transactions;
after the completion of the transaction in which the person becomes an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder holds at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation not including shares owned by persons who are directors and officers of interested stockholders and shares owned by specified employee benefit plans; or
after the person becomes an interested stockholder, the business combination is approved by the board of directors of the corporation and holders of at least 66.67% of the outstanding voting stock, excluding shares held by the interested stockholder.

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A Delaware corporation may elect not to be governed by Section 203 by a provision contained in the original certificate of incorporation of the corporation or an amendment to the original certificate of incorporation or to the bylaws of the company, which amendment must be approved by a majority of the shares entitled to vote and may not be further amended by the board of directors of the corporation. In most cases, such an amendment is not effective until 12 months following its adoption.

Inspection of books and records

The Netherlands. The board of directors must provide the general meeting, within a reasonable amount of time with all information that the general meeting requires, unless this would be contrary to an overriding interest of our company. If the board of directors invokes such an overriding interest, it must give reasons.

Delaware. Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, any stockholder may inspect for any proper purpose certain of the corporation’s books and records during the corporation’s usual hours of business.

Suspension and dismissal of directors

The Netherlands. Under our articles of association, directors can only be suspended or dismissed by the general meeting by simple majority, provided that our board of directors proposes the suspension or dismissal. In other cases, the general meeting can only pass such resolution by a two-thirds majority representing more than half of the issued share capital. The DCGC recommends that the general meeting can pass a resolution to dismiss a director by a simple majority, representing no more than one-third of the issued share capital.

Delaware. Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, any director or the entire board of directors may be removed, with or without cause, by the holders of a majority of the shares then entitled to vote at an election of directors, except (i) unless the certificate of incorporation provides otherwise, in the case of a corporation whose board is classified, stockholders may effect such removal only for cause, or (ii) in the case of a corporation having cumulative voting, if less than the entire board is to be removed, no director may be removed without cause if the votes cast against his removal would be sufficient to elect him if then cumulatively voted at an election of the entire board of directors, or, if there are classes of directors, at an election of the class of directors of which he is a part.

Issuance of shares

The Netherlands. Under Dutch law, a company’s general meeting is the corporate body authorized to resolve on the issuance of shares and the granting of rights to subscribe for shares. The general meeting can delegate such authority to another corporate body of the company for a period not exceeding five years; this authorization may only be extended from time to time for a maximum period of five years. Our Board has been authorized, for a period of five years following our conversion into a public company (naamloze vennootschap) on March 25, 2021 to issue common shares or grant rights to subscribe for common shares up to our authorized share capital from time to time. We may not subscribe for our own shares on issue.

Delaware. All creation of shares require the board of directors to adopt a resolution or resolutions, pursuant to authority expressly vested in the board of directors by the provisions of the company’s certificate of incorporation.

Preemptive rights

The Netherlands. Under Dutch law, in the event of an issuance of shares, each shareholder will have a pro rata pre-emption right in proportion to the aggregate nominal value of the shares held by such holder (except in case of an issue of shares to employees, against a contribution other than in cash or pursuant to the exercise of a previously acquired right to subscribe for shares). Under our articles of association, the pre-emption rights in respect of newly issued shares may be restricted or excluded by a resolution of the general meeting. Another corporate body may restrict or exclude the pre-emption rights in respect of newly issued shares if it has been designated as the authorized body to do so by the general meeting. Such designation can be granted for a period not exceeding five years. A resolution of the general meeting to restrict or exclude the pre-emption rights or to designate another corporate body as the authorized body to do so requires a majority of not less than two-thirds of the votes cast, if less than one-half of our issued share capital is represented at the meeting. Our Board has been authorized, for a period of five years following our conversion into a public company (naamloze vennootschap) on March 25, 2021 to limit or exclude pre-emption rights in relation to an issuance of our common shares or a grant of rights to subscribe for common shares that the Board is authorized to resolve upon.

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Delaware. Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, stockholders have no preemptive rights to subscribe for additional issues of stock or to any security convertible into such stock unless, and to the extent that, such rights are expressly provided for in the certificate of incorporation.

Dividends

The Netherlands. Under Dutch law, we may only pay dividends and other distributions from our reserves to the extent our shareholders’ equity (eigen vermogen) exceeds the sum of our paid-in and called-up share capital plus the reserves we must maintain under Dutch law or our articles of association and (if it concerns a distribution of profits) after adoption of our statutory annual accounts by our general meeting from which it appears that such dividend distribution is allowed. Subject to those restrictions, any future determination to pay dividends or other distributions from our reserves will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon a number of factors, including our results of operations, financial condition, future prospects, contractual restrictions, restrictions imposed by applicable law and other factors we deem relevant. See “Dividend Policy.”

Pursuant to our articles of association, distributions may be made in cash, in kind or in the form of shares.

Under our articles of association, if any preferred shares are or have been outstanding, a dividend is first paid out of our profits, if available for distribution, to the holders or former holders, as applicable, of those preferred shares to the extent they are entitled to such distribution under our articles of association, which we refer to as our preferred dividend. Thereafter, our Board may decide that all or part of the remaining profits shown in our adopted statutory annual accounts will be added to our reserves. After reservation of any such profits, any remaining profits will be at the disposal of the general meeting at the proposal of our board of directors for distribution on our common shares, subject to applicable restrictions of Dutch law as set out in the previous paragraph. Our Board is permitted, subject to certain requirements and applicable restrictions of Dutch law, to declare interim dividends without the approval of our general meeting. Dividends and other distributions shall be made payable no later than a date determined by us. Claims to dividends and other distributions not made within five years from the date that such dividends or distributions became payable will lapse and any such amounts will be considered to have been forfeited to us (verjaring).

Delaware. Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, a Delaware corporation may pay dividends out of its surplus (the excess of net assets over capital), or in case there is no surplus, out of its net profits for the fiscal year in which the dividend is declared and/or the preceding fiscal year (provided that the amount of the capital of the corporation is not less than the aggregate amount of the capital represented by the issued and outstanding stock of all classes having a preference upon the distribution of assets). In determining the amount of surplus of a Delaware corporation, the assets of the corporation, including stock of subsidiaries, must be valued at their fair market value as determined by the board of directors, without regard to their historical book value. Dividends may be paid in the form of common shares, property or cash.

Shareholder vote on certain reorganizations

The Netherlands. Under Dutch law, the general meeting must approve resolutions of the board of directors relating to a significant change in the identity or the character of the company or the business of the company, which includes:

a transfer of the business or virtually the entire business to a third-party;
the entry into or termination of a long-term cooperation of the company or a subsidiary with another legal entity or company or as a fully liable partner in a limited partnership or general partnership, if such cooperation or termination is of a far-reaching significance for the company; and
the acquisition or divestment by the company or a subsidiary of a participating interest in the capital of a company having a value of at least one-third of the amount of its assets according to its balance sheet and explanatory notes or, if the company prepares a consolidated balance sheet, according to its consolidated balance sheet and explanatory notes in the last adopted annual accounts of the company.

The absence of such approval shall result in the relevant resolution being null and void but shall not affect the powers of representation of the board of directors or of the directors vis-à-vis third parties.

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Delaware. Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, the vote of a majority of the outstanding shares of capital stock entitled to vote thereon generally is necessary to approve a merger or consolidation or the sale of all or substantially all of the assets of a corporation. The Delaware General Corporation Law permits a corporation to include in its certificate of incorporation a provision requiring for any corporate action the vote of a larger portion of the stock or of any class or series of stock than would otherwise be required.

Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, no vote of the stockholders of a surviving corporation to a merger is needed, however, unless required by the certificate of incorporation, if (i) the agreement of merger does not amend in any respect the certificate of incorporation of the surviving corporation, (ii) the shares of stock of the surviving corporation are not changed in the merger, and (iii) the number of common shares of the surviving corporation into which any other shares, securities or obligations to be issued in the merger may be converted does not exceed 20% of the surviving corporation’s common shares outstanding immediately prior to the effective date of the merger. In addition, stockholders may not be entitled to vote in certain mergers with other corporations that own 90% or more of the outstanding shares of each class of stock of such corporation, but the stockholders will be entitled to appraisal rights.

Remuneration of directors

The Netherlands. Dutch law does not provide for limitations with respect to the aggregate annual compensation paid to our directors, provided that such compensation is consistent with our compensation policy. Our compensation policy was adopted by the general meeting contemporaneous with the consummation of our initial public offering on March 29, 2021. Changes to such compensation policy will require a vote of our general meeting by a simple majority of votes cast. The board of directors determines the remuneration of individual directors with due observance of the compensation policy and Dutch law. A proposal with respect to remuneration schemes in the form of shares or rights to shares in which directors may participate is subject to approval by our general meeting by simple majority of votes cast. Such a proposal must set out at least the maximum number of shares or rights to subscribe for shares to be granted to the directors and the criteria for granting or amendment.

Delaware. Under the Delaware General Corporation Law, the stockholders do not generally have the right to approve the compensation policy for directors or the senior management of the corporation, although certain aspects of executive compensation may be subject to stockholder vote due to the provisions of U.S. federal securities and tax law, as well as exchange requirements.

Listing

Our common shares are listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “LVTX.”

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The U.S. transfer agent and registrar for our common shares is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants for the purchase of our common shares or of debt securities. We may issue warrants independently or together with other securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from any offered securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and the investors or a warrant agent. The following summary of material provisions of the warrants and warrant agreements are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the warrant agreement and warrant certificate applicable to a particular series of warrants. The terms of any warrants offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants.

The particular terms of any issue of warrants will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to the issue. Those terms may include:

the number of common shares purchasable upon the exercise of warrants to purchase such shares and the price at which such number of shares may be purchased upon such exercise;
the principal amount of debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of a debt warrant and the exercise price for the warrants, which may be payable in cash, securities or other property;
the date, if any, on and after which the warrants and the related debt securities or common shares will be separately transferable;
the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;
the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and the date on which the right will expire;
United States Federal income tax and certain material Dutch tax consequences applicable to the warrants; and
any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures, and limitations relating to the exchange, exercise and settlement of the warrants.

Holders of equity warrants will not be entitled:

to vote, consent or receive dividends;
receive notice as shareholders with respect to any meeting of shareholders for the election of our directors or any other matter; or
exercise any rights as shareholders of Lava Therapeutics.

Each warrant will entitle its holder to purchase the principal amount of debt securities or the number of common shares at the exercise price set forth in, or calculable as set forth in, the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

A holder of warrant certificates may exchange them for new warrant certificates of different denominations, present them for registration of transfer and exercise them at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Until any warrants to purchase debt securities are exercised, the holder of the warrants will not have any rights of holders of the debt securities that can be purchased upon exercise, including any rights to receive payments of principal, premium or interest on the underlying debt securities or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture. Until any warrants to purchase common shares are exercised, the holders of the warrants will not have any rights of holders of the underlying common shares, including any rights to receive dividends or payments upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up on the common shares.

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units consisting of any combination of the other types of securities offered under this prospectus in one or more series. We may evidence each series of units by unit certificates that we will issue under a separate agreement. We may enter into unit agreements with a unit agent. Each unit agent will be a bank or trust company that we select. We will indicate the name and address of the unit agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of units.

The following description, together with the additional information included in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the general features of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. You should read any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the series of units being offered, as well as the complete unit agreements that contain the terms of the units. Specific unit agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and we will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from another report that we file with the SEC, the form of each unit agreement relating to units offered under this prospectus.

If we offer any units, certain terms of that series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following, as applicable:

the title of the series of units;
identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;
the price or prices at which the units will be issued;
the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;
a discussion of certain United States federal income tax and certain material Dutch tax considerations applicable to the units; and
any other terms of the units and their constituent securities.

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

The debt securities will be our direct general obligations. The debt securities will be either senior debt securities or subordinated debt securities and may be secured or unsecured and may be convertible into other securities, including our ordinary shares. The debt securities will be issued under one or more separate indentures between our company and a financial institution that will act as trustee. Senior debt securities will be issued under a senior indenture. Subordinated debt securities will be issued under a subordinated indenture. Each of the senior indenture and the subordinated indenture is referred to individually as an indenture and collectively as the indentures. Each of the senior debt trustee and the subordinated debt trustee is referred to individually as a trustee and collectively as the trustees. The material terms of any indenture will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We have summarized certain terms and provisions of the indentures. The summary is not complete. The indentures are subject to and governed by the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended. The senior indenture and subordinated indenture are substantially identical, except for the provisions relating to subordination.

Neither indenture will limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. We may issue debt securities up to an aggregate principal amount as we may authorize from time to time. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of any debt securities being offered. These terms will include some or all of the following:

classification as senior or subordinated debt securities;
ranking of the specific series of debt securities relative to other outstanding indebtedness, including subsidiaries’ debt;
if the debt securities are subordinated, the aggregate amount of outstanding indebtedness, as of a recent date, that is senior to the subordinated securities, and any limitation on the issuance of additional senior indebtedness;
the designation, aggregate principal amount and authorized denominations;
the date or dates on which the principal of the debt securities may be payable;
the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum at which the debt securities shall bear interest, if any;
the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, on which such interest shall be payable, and on which a record shall be taken for the determination of holders of the debt securities to whom interest is payable;
the place or places where the principal and interest shall be payable;
our right, if any, to redeem the debt securities, in whole or in part, at our option and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and any terms and conditions upon which such debt securities may be so redeemed, pursuant to any sinking fund or otherwise;
our obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem, purchase or repay any debt securities pursuant to any mandatory redemption, sinking fund or other provisions or at the option of a holder of the debt securities;
if other than denominations of $2,000 and any higher integral multiple of $1,000, the denominations in which the debt securities will be issuable;
if other than the currency of the United States, the currency or currencies, in which payment of the principal and interest shall be payable;
whether the debt securities will be issued in the form of global securities;
provisions, if any, for the defeasance of the debt securities;
any material U.S. federal income tax and Dutch tax consequences; and
other specific terms, including any deletions from, modifications of or additions to the events of default or covenants described below or in the applicable indenture.

Senior Debt

We may issue under the senior indenture the debt securities that will constitute part of our senior debt. These senior debt securities will rank equally and pari passu with all our other unsecured and unsubordinated debt.

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Subordinated Debt

We may issue under the subordinated indenture the debt securities that will constitute part of our subordinated debt. These subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in right of payment, to the extent and in the manner set forth in the subordinated indenture, to all our “senior indebtedness.” “Senior indebtedness” is defined in the subordinated indenture and generally includes obligations of, or guaranteed by, us for borrowed money, or as evidenced by bonds, debentures, notes or other similar instruments, or in respect of letters of credit or other similar instruments, or to pay the deferred purchase price of property or services, or as a lessee under capital leases, or as secured by a lien on any asset of ours. “Senior indebtedness” does not include the subordinated debt securities or any other obligations specifically designated as being subordinate in right of payment to, or pari passu with, the subordinated debt securities. In general, the holders of all senior indebtedness are first entitled to receive payment in full of such senior indebtedness before the holders of any of the subordinated debt securities are entitled to receive a payment on account of the principal or interest on the indebtedness evidenced by the subordinated debt securities in certain events. These events include:

subject to Dutch law, any insolvency or bankruptcy proceedings, or any receivership, dissolution, winding up, total or partial liquidation, reorganization or other similar proceedings in respect of us or a substantial part of our property, whether voluntary or involuntary;
(i) a default having occurred with respect to the payment of principal or interest on or other monetary amounts due and payable with respect to any senior indebtedness or (ii) an event of default (other than a default described in clause (i) above) having occurred with respect to any senior indebtedness that permits the holder or holders of such senior indebtedness to accelerate the maturity of such senior indebtedness. Such a default or event of default must have continued beyond the period of grace, if any, provided in respect of such default or event of default, and such a default or event of default shall not have been cured or waived or shall not have ceased to exist; and
the principal of, and accrued interest on, any series of the subordinated debt securities having been declared due and payable upon an event of default pursuant to the subordinated indenture. This declaration must not have been rescinded and annulled as provided in the subordinated indenture.

Authentication and Delivery

We will deliver the debt securities to the trustee for authentication, and the trustee will authenticate and deliver the debt securities upon our written order.

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FORMS OF SECURITIES

Each debt security, warrant and unit will be represented either by a certificate issued in definitive form to a particular investor or by one or more global securities representing the entire issuance of securities. Certificated securities in definitive form and global securities will be issued in registered form. Definitive securities name you or your nominee as the owner of the security, and in order to transfer or exchange these securities or to receive payments other than interest or other interim payments, you or your nominee must physically deliver the securities to the trustee, registrar, paying agent or other agent, as applicable. Global securities name a depositary or its nominee as the owner of the debt securities, warrants or units represented by these global securities. The depositary maintains a computerized system that will reflect each investor’s beneficial ownership of the securities through an account maintained by the investor with its broker/dealer, bank, trust company or other representative, as we explain more fully below.

Registered Global Securities

We may issue registered debt securities, warrants and units in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with a depositary or its nominee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement and registered in the name of that depositary or nominee. In those cases, one or more registered global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal or face amount of the securities to be represented by registered global securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole for securities in definitive registered form, a registered global security may not be transferred except as a whole by and among the depositary for the registered global security, the nominees of the depositary or any successors of the depositary or those nominees.

If not described below, any specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any securities to be represented by a registered global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those securities. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements.

Ownership of beneficial interests in a registered global security will be limited to persons, called participants, that have accounts with the depositary or persons that may hold interests through participants. Upon the issuance of a registered global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal or face amounts of the securities beneficially owned by the participants. Any dealers, underwriters or agents participating in the distribution of the securities will designate the accounts to be credited. Ownership of beneficial interests in a registered global security will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary, with respect to interests of participants, and on the records of participants, with respect to interests of persons holding through participants. The laws of some states may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of these securities in definitive form. These laws may impair your ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in registered global securities.

So long as the depositary, or its nominee, is the registered owner of a registered global security, that depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by the registered global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement or unit agreement. Except as described below, owners of beneficial interests in a registered global security will not be entitled to have the securities represented by the registered global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the securities under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement or unit agreement. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a registered global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for that registered global security and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which the person owns its interest, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement or unit agreement. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a registered global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable indenture, warrant agreement or unit agreement, the depositary for the registered global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take that action, and the participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through them to give or take that action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

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Principal, premium, if any, and interest payments on debt securities, and any payments to holders with respect to warrants or units, represented by a registered global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the registered global security. None of Lava Therapeutics, its affiliates, the trustees, the warrant agents, the unit agents or any other agent of Lava Therapeutics, agent of the trustees or agent of the warrant agents or unit agents will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the registered global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial ownership interests.

We expect that the depositary for any of the securities represented by a registered global security, upon receipt of any payment of principal, premium, interest or other distribution of underlying securities or other property to holders on that registered global security, will immediately credit participants’ accounts in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in that registered global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a registered global security held through participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of those participants.

If the depositary for any of these securities represented by a registered global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and a successor depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act is not appointed by us within 90 days, we will issue securities in definitive form in exchange for the registered global security that had been held by the depositary. Any securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a registered global security will be registered in the name or names that the depositary gives to the relevant trustee, warrant agent, unit agent or other relevant agent of ours or theirs. It is expected that the depositary’s instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the registered global security that had been held by the depositary.

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell the securities from time to time in one or more of the following ways (or in any combination):

through underwriters or dealers;
directly to a limited number of purchasers or to a single purchaser;
in “at-the-market” offerings, within the meaning of Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), to or through a market maker or into an existing trading market on an exchange or otherwise;
through agents; or
through any other method permitted by applicable law and described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Each time that we sell securities covered by this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement or supplements that will describe the method of distribution and set forth the terms and conditions of the offering of such securities, including the offering price of the securities and the proceeds to us. The prospectus supplement will state the terms of the offering of the securities, including:

the name or names of any underwriters, dealers or agents;
the purchase price of such securities and the proceeds to be received by us, if any;
any underwriting discounts or agency fees and other items constituting underwriters’ or agents’ compensation;
any public offering price;
any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and
any securities exchanges on which the securities may be listed.

Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may be changed from time to time.

If underwriters are used in the sale, the securities will be acquired by the underwriters for their own account and may be resold from time to time in one or more transactions, including:

negotiated transactions;
at a fixed public offering price or prices, which may be changed;
at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;
at prices related to prevailing market prices; or
at negotiated prices.

Unless otherwise stated in a prospectus supplement, the obligations of the underwriters to purchase any securities will be conditioned on customary closing conditions and the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of such series of securities, if any are purchased.

The securities may be sold through agents from time to time. The prospectus supplement will name any agent involved in the offer or sale of the securities and any commissions paid to them. Generally, any agent will be acting on commercially reasonable efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

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Sales to or through one or more underwriters or agents in at-the-market offerings will be made pursuant to the terms of a distribution agreement with the underwriters or agents. Such underwriters or agents may act on an agency basis or on a principal basis. During the term of any such agreement, shares may be sold on a daily basis on any stock exchange, market or trading facility on which the common shares are traded, in privately negotiated transactions or otherwise as agreed with the underwriters or agents. The distribution agreement will provide that any common shares sold will be sold at negotiated prices or at prices related to the then prevailing market prices for our common shares. Therefore, exact figures regarding proceeds that will be raised or commissions to be paid cannot be determined at this time and will be described in a prospectus supplement. Pursuant to the terms of the distribution agreement, we may also agree to sell, and the relevant underwriters or agents may agree to solicit offers to purchase, blocks of our common shares or other securities. The terms of each such distribution agreement will be described in a prospectus supplement.

We may authorize underwriters, dealers or agents to solicit offers by certain purchasers to purchase the securities at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. The contracts will be subject only to those conditions set forth in the prospectus supplement, and the prospectus supplement will set forth any commissions paid for solicitation of these contracts.

Underwriters and agents may be entitled under agreements entered into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribution with respect to payments which the underwriters or agents may be required to make.

The prospectus supplement may also set forth whether or not underwriters may over-allot or effect transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the market price of the securities at levels above those that might otherwise prevail in the open market, including, for example, by entering stabilizing bids, effecting syndicate covering transactions or imposing penalty bids.

Underwriters and agents may be customers of, engage in transactions with, or perform services for us and our affiliates in the ordinary course of business.

Each series of securities will be a new issue of securities and will have no established trading market, other than our common shares, which are listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market. Any underwriters to whom securities are sold for public offering and sale may make a market in the securities, but such underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. The securities, other than our ordinary shares, may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange.

The specific terms of any lock-up provisions in respect of any given offering will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

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INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference information into this document. This means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be a part of this document, except for any information superseded by information that is included directly in this prospectus or incorporated by reference subsequent to the date of this prospectus.

We incorporate by reference the following documents or information that we have filed with the SEC:

Our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021 filed on March 24, 2022; and
The description of our common shares contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on March 18, 2021, as updated by the description of our common shares filed as Exhibit 2.1 to our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021.

All annual reports we file with the SEC pursuant to the Exchange Act on Form 20-F after the date of this prospectus and prior to termination or expiration of this registration statement shall be deemed incorporated by reference into this prospectus and to be part hereof from the date of filing of such documents. We may incorporate by reference any Form 6-K subsequently submitted to the SEC by identifying in such Form 6-K that it is being incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus are available from us without charge upon written or oral request, excluding any exhibits to those documents that are not specifically incorporated by reference into those documents. You can obtain documents incorporated by reference in this document by requesting them from us in writing at 3584 CM Utrecht, The Netherlands or via telephone at +31 6 3000 3035.

ENFORCEMENT OF CIVIL LIABILITIES

We are incorporated under the laws of the Netherlands. In addition, substantially all of our assets are located outside the United States. The majority of our directors reside outside the United States.

As a result, it may not be possible for shareholders to effect service of process within the United States upon us or our directors and executive officers or to enforce judgments against us or them in U.S. courts, including judgments predicated upon the civil liability provisions of the federal securities laws of the United States. In addition, it is not clear whether a Dutch court would impose civil liability on us or any of our directors and executive officers in an original action based solely upon the federal securities laws of the United States brought in a court of competent jurisdiction in the Netherlands.

As of the date of this prospectus, the United States and the Netherlands do not have a treaty providing for the reciprocal recognition and enforcement of judgments, other than arbitration awards, in civil and commercial matters. With respect to choice of court agreements in civil or commercial matters, it is noted that the Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements entered into force for the Netherlands, but has not entered into force for the United States. Accordingly, a judgment rendered by a court in the United States, whether or not predicated solely upon U.S. securities laws, would not automatically be recognized and enforced by the competent Dutch courts. However, if a person has obtained a judgment rendered by a court in the United States that is enforceable under the laws of the United States and files a claim with the competent Dutch court, the Dutch court will in principle give binding effect to a foreign judgment if (i) the jurisdiction of the foreign court was based on a ground of jurisdiction that is generally acceptable according to international standards, (ii) the judgment by the foreign court was rendered in legal proceedings that comply with the Dutch standards of proper administration of justice including sufficient safeguards (behoorlijke rechtspleging), (iii) binding effect of such foreign judgment is not contrary to Dutch public order (openbare orde) and (iv) the judgment by the foreign court is not incompatible with a decision rendered between the same parties by a Dutch court, or with a previous decision rendered between the same parties by a foreign court in a dispute that concerns the same subject and is based on the same cause, provided that the previous decision qualifies for recognition in the Netherlands. Even if such a foreign judgement is given binding effect, a claim based thereon may, however, still be rejected if the foreign judgment is not or no longer formally enforceable.

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Based on the lack of a treaty as described above, U.S. investors may not be able to enforce against us or our directors, representatives or certain experts named herein who are residents of the Netherlands or countries other than the United States any judgments obtained in U.S. courts in civil and commercial matters, including judgments under the U.S. federal securities laws.

EXPENSES

The following is an estimate of the expenses (all of which are to be paid by us) that we may incur in connection with the securities being registered hereby.

SEC registration fee

    

$

23,175

 

FINRA filing fee

38,000

Printing expenses

*

Legal fees and expenses

*

Accounting fees and expenses

*

Blue Sky, qualification fees and expenses

*

Transfer agent fees and expenses

*

Warrant agent fees and expenses

*

Miscellaneous

*

Total

$

61,175

These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time. Such fees will be provided by a prospectus supplement or a Report on Form 6-K that is incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of our common shares and certain other matters of Dutch law will be passed upon for us by NautaDutilh N.V. with its address at Beethovenstraat 400, 1082 PR Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Certain matters of U.S. federal and New York State law will be passed upon for us by Ballard Spahr LLP.

EXPERTS

The financial statements incorporated in this Prospectus by reference to the Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2021 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers Accountants N.V., an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

The current address of PricewaterhouseCoopers Accountants N.V. is Boschdijktunnel 10, 5611 AG Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual reports on Form 20-F, reports on Form 6-K, and other information with the SEC under the Exchange Act. You may read and copy this information at the website of the SEC, http://www.sec.gov. The SEC website also contains reports and other information about issuers like us who file electronically with the SEC.

As a foreign private issuer, we are exempt under the Exchange Act from, among other things, the rules prescribing the furnishing and content of proxy statements, and our directors and principal shareholders are exempt from the reporting and short-swing profit recovery provisions contained in Section 16 of the Exchange Act. In addition, we are not required under the Exchange Act to file periodic reports and financial statements with the SEC as frequently or as promptly as U.S. companies whose securities are registered under the Exchange Act.

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The information in this prospectus supplement is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus supplement is not an offer to sell these securities nor a solicitation of an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer and sale is not permitted.

Subject to completion, dated April 12, 2022

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Up to $50,000,000

Common Shares

We have entered into an Equity Distribution Agreement, dated April 11, 2022, with JMP Securities LLC, or JMP Securities, relating to the sale of our common shares, nominal value €0.12 per share, offered by this prospectus supplement. In accordance with the terms of the Equity Distribution Agreement, we may offer and sell our common shares having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000 from time to time through or to JMP Securities, acting as agent or principal.

Our common shares are listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, or Nasdaq, under the symbol “LVTX.” On April 11, 2022, the last reported sale price for our common shares on Nasdaq was $3.88 per share.

Sales of our common shares, if any, under this prospectus supplement may be made in sales deemed to be “at the market offerings” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. JMP Securities will act as sales agent and use commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the common shares requested to be sold by us, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between JMP Securities and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

JMP Securities will be entitled to compensation at a commission rate up to 3.0% of the aggregate gross sales. In connection with its sale of common shares on our behalf, JMP Securities will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation of JMP Securities will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to JMP Securities with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

We are an “emerging growth company” and a “foreign private issuer” as defined under the Securities Act and, as such, we have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements for this prospectus supplement and future filings. Please see “Our Company—Implications of Being an “Emerging Growth Company” and “Our Company-Implications of Being a Foreign Private Issuer” in the accompanying prospectus.

Investing in our common shares involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-6 of this prospectus supplement, page 6 of the accompanying prospectus, and in the reports we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement before making a decision to invest in our common shares.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any securities commission of any state or other jurisdiction has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus is accurate or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

JMP Securities
A CITIZENS COMPANY

The date of this prospectus supplement is , 2022.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Prospectus Supplement

About this Prospectus Supplement

S-1

Cautionary Statement Relating To Forward-Looking Statements

S-2

Prospectus Summary

S-3

Risk Factors

S-6

Use of Proceeds

S-8

Dividend Policy

S-8

Plan of Distribution

S-9

Legal Matters

S-20

Experts

S-20

Where You Can Find More Information

S-20

Incorporation by Reference

S-20

Prospectus

About This Prospectus

1

Presentation of Financial Information

1

Market and Industry Data

1

Trademarks, Services Marks and Tradenames

1

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

2

Our Company

3

Risk Factors

6

Capitalization

6

Use of Proceeds

7

Dividend Policy

7

Description of Share Capital and Articles of Association

8

Descriptions of Warrants

24

Description of Units

25

Description of Debt Securities

26

Forms of Securities

28

Plan of Distribution

30

Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference

32

Enforcement of Civil Liabilities

32

Expenses

33

Legal Matters

33

Experts

33

Where You Can Find More Information

33

We have not, and JMP Securities has not, authorized anyone to provide you with information different than that which is contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. We are not, and JMP Securities is not, making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, if any, in their entirety before making an investment decision. You should

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also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the sections of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus titled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation by Reference.”

We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, our common shares only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or any free writing prospectus and the offering of common shares in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or any free writing prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the common shares and the distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus or any free writing prospectus outside the United States.

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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

This document is in two parts. The first part is this prospectus supplement, which describes the terms of this offering of common shares and also adds to and updates information contained in the accompanying prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus. The second part, the accompanying prospectus date April 12, 2022, including the documents incorporated by reference therein, provides more general information. Generally, when we refer to this prospectus, we are referring to both parts of this document combined. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus supplement, on the one hand, and the information contained in the accompanying prospectus or in any document incorporated by reference that was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, before the date of this prospectus supplement, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference in the accompanying prospectus—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement. You should assume that the information contained in this prospectus supplement is accurate as of the date on the front cover of this prospectus supplement only and that any information we have incorporated by reference or included in the accompanying prospectus is accurate only as of the date given in the document incorporated by reference or as of the date of the prospectus, as applicable, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus or any sale of our common shares. Our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations and prospects may have changed since that date.

Before buying any of the common shares that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read both this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus together with all of the information incorporated by reference herein, as well as the additional information described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation by Reference.” These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

This prospectus supplement relates only to an offering of up to $50,000,000 of our common shares through JMP Securities as agent. These sales, if any, will be made pursuant to the terms of the Equity Distribution Agreement entered into between us and JMP Securities on April 11, 2022, a copy of which is incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.

In this prospectus supplement, when we refer to “LAVA,” “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company,” we mean LAVA Therapeutics N.V. and its consolidated subsidiary, unless otherwise specified.

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus contain statements that constitute forward-looking statements. Many of the forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus can be identified by the use of forward-looking words such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “could,” “expect,” “should,” “plan,” “intend,” “estimate” and “potential,” among others. Forward-looking statements appear in a number of places in this prospectus supplement and accompanying prospectus supplement and include, but are not limited to, statements regarding our intent, belief or current expectations. Forward-looking statements are based on our management’s beliefs and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. Such statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, and actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements due to various important factors, including, but not limited to, those identified under the section titled “Risk Factors” in this prospectus supplement. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

our operations as a biotechnology company with limited operating history and a history of operating losses;
our plans to develop and commercialize our product candidates;
the initiation, timing, progress and results of our current and future preclinical studies and clinical trials and our research and development programs;
our expectations regarding the impact of the COVID 19 pandemic on our business, our industry and the economy;
our ability to successfully acquire or in-license additional product candidates on reasonable terms;
our ability to maintain and establish collaborations or obtain additional funding;
our ability to obtain regulatory approval of our current and future product candidates;
our expectations regarding the potential market size and the rate and degree of market acceptance of such product candidates;
our continued reliance on third parties to conduct clinical trials of our product candidates and manufacture our product candidates for preclinical studies and clinical trials;
our ability to fund our working capital requirements and expectations regarding the sufficiency of our capital resources;
the implementation of our business model and strategic plans for our business and product candidates;
our ability to establish sales, marketing and distribution capabilities;
our intellectual property position and the duration of our patent rights;
our estimates regarding expenses, future revenues, capital requirements and our needs for additional financing;
the impact of government laws and regulations on our business;
our need to hire additional personnel and our ability to attract and retain such personnel;
our ability to compete in the markets we serve;
developments relating to our competitors and our industry; and
other risk factors discussed under “Risk Factors.”

Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made, and we do not undertake any obligation to update them in light of new information or future developments or to release publicly any revisions to these statements in order to reflect later events or circumstances or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events, except to the extent required by applicable law.

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in the other documents we incorporate by reference. This summary does not contain all the information that you should consider before investing in the common shares. You should carefully read the entire prospectus supplement, including the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus, our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, and any amendment or update thereto reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC, and incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, before making an investment decision.

Overview

We are a clinical-stage immuno-oncology company dedicated to rapidly developing new cancer treatments that leverage the immune system to save patients’ lives. Using our GammabodyTM platform, we are developing a portfolio of novel bispecific antibodies designed to engage, and leverage the potency and precision of, gamma delta (gd) T cells to elicit a robust anti-tumor immune response in order to improve outcomes for cancer patients.

Gamma delta (gd) T cells are a “ready-to-fight” first line of defense of the human body and form a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune systems. Vgamma9 Vdelta2 (Vg9Vd2) T cells, the largest subpopulation of gamma delta T cells in healthy adults, are a homogeneous effector T cell population whose prevalence has been correlated with favorable outcomes and survival in blood cancers (hematological malignancies) and solid tumors. They have the natural ability to distinguish cancer cells from healthy cells and, once activated, have the potential to trigger a rapid and potent immune response to a wide array of cancers. In addition, gamma delta T cells can initiate further activation of cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems, which can lead to a long-lasting immune response and immunological memory.

Other T cell engager (TCE) approaches, including bispecific antibodies that activate T cells through binding of CD3, which is present on all T cells, and adoptive transfer of T cells expressing an engineered chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-T) cells, have provided clinical activity against selected cancers. Nonetheless, the promise of TCEs for broader use as cancer therapy has not yet been fully realized. Drawbacks of these approaches include dose-limiting toxicities resulting from the excessive release of cytokines, referred to as cytokine release syndrome (CRS). CD3-based TCEs have additional limitations because of their broad activation of T cells, including both effector T cells and regulatory cells (Tregs). Activation of Tregs can dampen anti-cancer immunity, potentially resulting in decreased or no therapeutic efficacy. The therapeutic active dose and the toxic dose of CD3-based TCEs are often in close proximity, resulting in a very narrow therapeutic window, which may preclude full exploitation of their therapeutic potential. Adoptive transfer of CAR-T cells is complex and costly, and has also been associated with significant risk of CRS an on-target off-tumor-related toxicities.

Our Gammabody platform enables us to develop off-the-shelf bispecific T cell engagers that leverage the advantages of antibody-based treatments including favorable manufacturability and developability characteristics. Our Gammabody platform is designed, to recruit the body’s own Vgamma9 Vdelta2 T cells resulting in tumor cell targeting and conditional cancer cell killing. One arm of the Gammabody recruits Vgamma9 Vdelta2 T cells, while the other arm recognizes and binds to a specific tumor target present on blood cancers or solid tumors. Our Gammabody drug candidates are designed to activate the Vgamma9 Vdelta2 T cells once both arms are bound to both the gamma delta T cell and the tumor target thereby avoiding broad systemic activation. We believe this approach provides a significant opportunity to address unmet medical needs with the potential to elicit potent and durable responses in patients and may provide a superior therapeutic window compared to other approaches by reducing the risk of on target/off tumor mediated toxicity, and avoid activation of Tregs and broad systemic activation resulting in CRS.

We have generated compelling preclinical data using patient tumor tissues that demonstrate the ability of our Gammabody platform to preferentially kill tumor cells by targeting tumor-associated antigens while relatively sparing healthy cells. Studies in non-human primates, using surrogate Gammabody molecules, indicate that our gamma delta T cell engagers are well tolerated with low activity against healthy cells and low induction of cytokines.

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We believe our Gammabody platform has the potential to develop treatments for patients with a wide variety of cancers, both as monotherapy and in combination with other therapies. We are currently advancing our Gammabody pipeline for the development of potential therapeutics in both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.

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Company and Corporate Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the Netherlands on February 15, 2016, as a private company with limited liability (besloten vennootschap met beperkte aansprakelijkheid), and upon consummation of our initial public offering of common shares on March 29, 2021, we converted into a Dutch public company with limited liability (naamloze vennootschap).

Our principal executive offices are located at Yalelaan 60, 3584 CM Utrecht, the Netherlands. Our telephone number at this address is +31 6 3000 3035.

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The Offering

The following summary contains the principal terms of this offering. The summary is not intended to be complete. You should read the full text and more specific details contained elsewhere in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus.

Issuer

LAVA Therapeutics N.V.

Common shares offered by us

Common shares having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000.

Manner of offering

“At the market offerings” that may be made from time to time through or to JMP Securities, as sales agent or principal. See “Plan of Distribution” on page S-10 of this prospectus supplement.

Common shares outstanding immediately after the offering

38,662,136 shares, assuming sales at $3.88 per share, the last reported sale price of our common shares on Nasdaq on April 11, 2022.

Use of Proceeds

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, to fund the continued development of our product candidates and for working capital and general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds.”

Listing

Our common shares are listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “LVTX.”

Risk Factors

See “Risk Factors” included in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying prospectus and in our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, and in any updates to those risk factors in our reports on Form 6-K or subsequent Annual Reports on Form 20-F incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus for a description of factors that you should consider before purchasing our common shares.

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RISK FACTORS

An investment in our common shares involves a high degree of risk. You should consider carefully the risk factors described below and set forth in the “Risk Factors” section of our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, and in any updates to those risk factors in our reports on Form 6-K or subsequent Annual Reports on Form 20-F, together with the other information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes, as well as any amendment or update to our risk factors reflected in subsequent filings with the SEC, before deciding to invest in our common shares. We operate in a changing environment that involves numerous known and unknown risks and uncertainties that could materially adversely affect our operations. If any of such risks occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and the value of our common shares could be materially and adversely affected. In such case, you may lose all or part of your investment in our common shares.

Risks Related to this Offering

Future sales, or the possibility of future sales, of a substantial number of our common shares could adversely affect the price of the shares and dilute shareholders.

Future sales, including during this offering, of a substantial number of our common shares, or the perception that such sales will occur, could cause a decline in the market price of our common shares. Pursuant to the at-the-market program, and potentially other offerings, we plan to continue to raise money to fund our operations through the issuance of our equity securities. If our existing shareholders sell substantial amounts of common shares in the public market, or the market perceives that such sales may occur, the market price of our common shares and our ability to raise capital through an issue of equity securities in the future could be adversely affected.

If we sell common shares, convertible securities or other equity securities, existing shareholders may be diluted by such sales, and in certain cases new investors could gain rights superior to our existing shareholders. Any sales of our common shares, or the perception that such sales could occur, could have a negative impact on the trading price of our shares.

You may experience immediate dilution in the book value per share of the common shares you purchase.

Because the price per share of our common shares being offered may be higher than the book value per share of our common shares, you may suffer dilution in the net tangible book value of the common shares you purchase in this offering. The actual amount of dilution from this offering will be based on numerous factors and cannot be determined at this time. The per share trading price of our common shares could decline as a result of sales of a large number of common shares in the market in connection with this offering or otherwise or as a result of the perception or expectation that such sales could occur. The exercise of outstanding stock options and warrants may result in further dilution of your investment.

Our management will have broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from this offering.

We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering as described in “Use of Proceeds.” However, our board of directors and management retain broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering, and you will not have the opportunity, as part of your investment decision, to assess whether the proceeds from this offering are being used appropriately. The net proceeds may be used for corporate purposes that do not increase our operating results or market value. Until the net proceeds are used, they may be placed in investments that do not produce income or that lose value.

The actual number of shares we will issue under the Equity Distribution Agreement with JMP Securities, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.

Subject to certain limitations in the Equity Distribution Agreement with JMP Securities and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver placement notices to JMP Securities at any time throughout the term of the Equity Distribution Agreement. The number of shares that are sold by JMP Securities, if any, after delivering a placement notice will fluctuate based on the market price of the common shares during the sales period and limits we set with JMP Securities.

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The common shares offered in this offering will be sold in “at the market offerings.” Investors who purchase our common shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices.

Investors who purchase our common shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and so may experience different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices and numbers of ordinary shares sold, and subject to certain limitations in the sales agreement, there is no minimum or maximum sales price. Investors may experience a decline in the value of their common shares and dilution as a result of sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.

We may be classified as a passive foreign investment company (PFIC) for U.S. federal income tax purposes, which could result in adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences to U.S. investors in the common shares.

Based on the estimated composition of our income, assets and operations, we do not believe that we were classified as a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes for the taxable year ending December 31, 2021. A non-U.S. company will be considered a PFIC for any taxable year if (i) at least 75% of its gross income is passive income (including interest income), or (ii) at least 50% of the value of its assets (generally based on an average of the quarterly values of the assets during a taxable year) is attributable to assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income. In addition, for purposes of the above calculations, a non-U.S. corporation that directly or indirectly owns at least 25% by value of the shares of another corporation is treated as if it held its proportionate share of the assets and received directly its proportionate share of the income of such other corporation. The value of our assets generally is determined by reference to the market price of our common shares, which may fluctuate considerably. In addition, the composition of our income and assets is affected by how, and how quickly, we spend the cash we raise.

If we were to be treated as a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. Holder (as defined in the section entitled “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations for U.S. Holders” hereof) held a common share, certain adverse U.S. federal income tax consequences could apply to such U.S. Holder, including (1) the treatment of all or a portion of any gain on disposition of a common share as ordinary income, (2) the application of an interest charge with respect to such gain and certain dividends and (3) compliance with certain reporting requirements. See the section titled “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations for U.S. Holders.”

The market price of our common shares has been, and may continue to be volatile and fluctuate substantially, which could reduce the market price of our common shares.

The publicly traded shares of our common shares have experienced, and may experience in the future, significant price and volume fluctuations. This market volatility could reduce the market price of our common shares without regard to our operating performance. In addition, the trading price of our common shares could change significantly in response to actual or anticipated variations in our quarterly operating results, announcements by us or our competitors, factors affecting the medical imaging industry generally, changes in national or regional economic conditions, changes in securities analysts’ estimates for us or our competitors’ or industry’s future performance or general market conditions, making it more difficult for our common shares to be sold at a favorable price or at all. The market price of our common shares could also be reduced by general market price declines or market volatility in the future or future declines or volatility in the prices of stocks for companies in our industry.

The exercise of outstanding stock options to purchase common shares will have a dilutive effect on the percentage ownership of our capital stock by existing stockholders.

We have previously issued options that are exercisable into a significant number of our common shares. Should existing holders of options exercise their securities into common shares, it may cause significant dilution of equity interests of existing holders of our common shares and reduce the market price of our common shares.

We are not currently paying dividends and will likely not pay dividends for the foreseeable future.

We have never paid or declared any cash dividends on our common shares. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and expansion of our business, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to pay cash dividends will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, results of operations, capital requirements, contractual restrictions and other factors that our board of directors deems relevant.

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We may issue and sell our common shares having aggregate sale proceeds of up to $50,000,000 from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required to be sold in connection with this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time.

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, to fund the continued development of our product candidates and for general corporate purposes and other business opportunities, including, but not limited to, working capital, capital expenditures, investments, acquisitions, should we choose to pursue any, and collaborations.

As of the date of this prospectus supplement, we have not determined the amounts we plan to spend on any of the areas listed above or the timing of these expenditures. As a result, our management will have broad discretion to allocate the net proceeds, if any, we receive from this offering. Pending any use described above, we intend to invest the net proceeds of the global offering in short- and intermediate-term interest-bearing obligations, investment-grade instruments, certificates of deposit or direct or guaranteed obligations of the European Union and U.S. government.

DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never paid or declared any cash dividends in the past, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. We intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the further development and expansion of our business. Under Dutch law, we may only pay dividends and other distributions from our reserves to the extent our shareholders’ equity (eigen vermogen) exceeds the sum of our paid-in and called-up share capital plus the reserves we must maintain under Dutch law or our articles of association and (if it concerns a distribution of profits) after adoption of our statutory annual accounts by our general meeting from which it appears that such dividend distribution is allowed. Subject to those restrictions, any future determination to pay dividends or other distributions from our reserves will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon a number of factors, including our results of operations, financial condition, future prospects, contractual restrictions, restrictions imposed by applicable law and other factors we deem relevant.

Under our articles of association, if any preferred shares are or have been outstanding, a dividend is first paid out of our profits, if available for distribution, to the holders or former holders, as applicable, of those preferred shares to the extent they are entitled to such distribution under our articles of association, which we refer to as our preferred dividend. Thereafter, our board of directors may decide that all or part of the remaining profits shown in our adopted statutory annual accounts will be added to our reserves. After reservation of any such profits, any remaining profits will be at the disposal of the general meeting at the proposal of our board of directors for distribution on our common shares, subject to applicable restrictions of Dutch law as set out in the previous paragraph. Our board of directors is permitted, subject to certain requirements and applicable restrictions of Dutch law, to declare interim dividends without the approval of our general meeting. Dividends and other distributions shall be made payable no later than a date determined by us. Claims to dividends and other distributions not made within five years from the date that such dividends or distributions became payable will lapse and any such amounts will be considered to have been forfeited to us (verjaring).

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We have entered into an Equity Distribution Agreement, or the Agreement, with JMP Securities under which we may issue and sell from time to time our common shares having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000 through or to JMP Securities as sales agent or principal. Sales of our common shares, if any, under this prospectus supplement may be made in transactions that are deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act.

Each time we wish to issue and sell common shares under the Agreement, we will notify JMP Securities of the number or dollar value of shares to be issued, the dates on which such sales are anticipated to be made, any limitation on the number of shares that may be sold in any one day, any minimum price below which sales may not be made and other sales parameters as we deem appropriate. Once we have so instructed JMP Securities, unless JMP Securities declines to accept the terms of the notice in accordance with the Agreement, JMP Securities has agreed to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable laws, rules and regulations and the rules of Nasdaq to sell such common shares up to the amount specified on such terms. The obligations of JMP Securities under the Agreement to sell our common shares are subject to a number of conditions that we must meet.

JMP Securities will provide written confirmation to us no later than the opening of the trading day on Nasdaq following the trading day in which our common shares are sold under the Agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of common shares sold on the preceding day, the net proceeds to us and the compensation payable by us to JMP Securities in connection with the sales.

We will pay JMP Securities commissions for its services in acting as agent or principal in the sale of our shares. JMP Securities will be entitled to compensation at a commission rate up to 3.0% of the gross sales price per common share sold under the Agreement. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to closing this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. We have also agreed to reimburse JMP Securities for certain specified expenses, including the fees and disbursements of its legal counsel in connection with entering into the transactions contemplated by the Agreement in an amount not to exceed $50,000 and have agreed to reimburse JMP Securities an amount not to exceed $2,500 per calendar quarter during the term of the Agreement for legal fees to be incurred by JMP Securities.

We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding compensation and reimbursements payable to JMP Securities under the terms of the Agreement, will be approximately $150,000.

Settlement for sales of common shares will occur on the second trading day following the date on which any sales are made, or on some other date that is agreed upon by us and JMP Securities in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. Sales of our common shares as contemplated in this prospectus supplement will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and JMP Securities agree upon. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

In connection with the sale of common shares on our behalf, JMP Securities will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation of JMP Securities will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to JMP Securities against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

The offering pursuant to the Agreement will terminate upon the termination of the Agreement as permitted therein.

JMP Securities and its affiliates may in the future provide various investment banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they may in the future receive customary fees. To the extent required by Regulation M, JMP Securities will not engage in any market making activities involving our common shares while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus supplement.

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MATERIAL UNITED STATES AND DUTCH TAX CONSIDERATIONS

The following summary contains a description of material United States federal income tax and Dutch tax considerations of the acquisition, ownership and disposition of our common shares. This summary should not be considered a comprehensive description of all the tax considerations that may be relevant to the decision to acquire our common shares. You should consult your tax advisor regarding the applicable tax consequences to you of investing in our common shares under the laws of the United States (federal, state and local), the Netherlands, and any other applicable jurisdiction.

Material U.S. federal income tax considerations for U.S. Holders

The following is a description of the material U.S. federal income tax considerations to the U.S. Holders described below of owning and disposing of our common shares. It is not a comprehensive description of all tax considerations that may be relevant to a particular person’s decision to acquire securities. This discussion applies only to a U.S. Holder that purchase our common shares in this connection with this offering and holds such common shares as a capital asset within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, for tax purposes (generally, property held for investment). In addition, it does not describe all of the tax considerations that may be relevant in light of a U.S. Holder’s particular circumstances, including state and local tax considerations, estate or gift tax considerations, or the application of the alternative minimum tax considerations, the Medicare contribution tax on net investment income, or the special tax accounting rules under Section 451(b) of the Code, and tax considerations applicable to U.S. Holders subject to special rules, such as:

banks, insurance companies, and certain other financial institutions;
U.S. expatriates and certain former citizens or long-term residents of the United States;
dealers or traders in securities who use a mark-to-market method of tax accounting;
persons holding common shares as part of a hedging transaction, “straddle,” wash sale, conversion transaction or integrated transaction or persons entering into a constructive sale with respect to common shares;
persons whose “functional currency” for U.S. federal income tax purposes is not USD;
brokers, dealers or traders in securities, commodities or currencies;
tax-exempt entities or government organizations;
S corporations, partnerships, or other entities or arrangements classified as partnerships or pass-throughs for U.S. federal income tax purposes (and investors therein);
regulated investment companies or real estate investment trusts;
persons who acquired our common shares pursuant to the exercise of any employee stock option or otherwise as compensation;
persons that own or are deemed to own (including by attribution) ten percent or more of our shares (by vote or value); and
persons holding our common shares in connection with a trade or business, permanent establishment, or fixed base outside the United States.

If an entity or arrangement that is classified as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes holds common shares, the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a partner will generally depend on the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. Partnerships holding common shares and partners in such partnerships are encouraged to consult their tax advisors as to the particular U.S. federal income tax consequences of holding and disposing of common shares.

The discussion is based on the Code, administrative pronouncements, judicial decisions, final, temporary and proposed Treasury Regulations, and the income tax treaty between the Netherlands and the United States, or the Treaty, all as of the date hereof, changes to any of which may affect the tax considerations described herein—possibly with retroactive effect.

A “U.S. Holder” is a holder who, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, is a beneficial owner of common shares who is eligible for the benefits of the Treaty and is:

(1)

an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States;

(2)

a corporation, or other entity taxable as a corporation, created or organized in or under the laws of the United States, any state therein, or the District of Columbia;

(3)

an estate, the income of which is subject to U.S. federal income taxation regardless of its source; or

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(4)

a trust if (a) a U.S. court is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of the trust and one or more U.S. persons have authority to control all substantial decisions of the trust or (b) the trust has a valid election to be treated as a U.S. person under applicable U.S. Treasury Regulations.

U.S. Holders are encouraged to consult their tax advisors concerning the U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. tax consequences of owning and disposing of our common shares in their particular circumstances.

Passive foreign investment company

A non-U.S. corporation will be classified as a passive foreign investment company, or PFIC, for any taxable year in which, after applying certain look-through rules, either:

at least 75% of its gross income is passive income (such as interest income); or
at least 50% of its gross assets (determined on the basis of a quarterly average) is attributable to assets that produce passive income or are held for the production of passive income.

For this purpose, cash is generally a passive asset and passive income generally includes dividends, interest, royalties and rents (other than royalties and rents derived in the active conduct of a trade or business and not derived from a related person). For purposes of this test, we will be treated as owning our proportionate share of the assets and earning our proportionate share of the income of any other corporation, the equity of which we own, directly or indirectly, 25% or more (by value).

Based on the estimated composition of our income, assets and operations and the expected price of our common shares in this offering, we do not believe that we were classified as a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes for the taxable year ending December 31, 2021. The determination of whether we are a PFIC is a fact-intensive determination made on an annual basis and the applicable law is subject to varying interpretation. In particular, the characterization of our assets as active or passive may depend in part on our current and intended future business plans, which are subject to change. In addition, for our current and future taxable years, the total value of our assets for PFIC testing purposes may be determined in part by reference to the market price of our common shares from time to time, which may fluctuate considerably. Under the income test, our status as a PFIC depends on the composition of our income which will depend on a variety of factors that are subject to uncertainty, including the characterization of certain intercompany payments and payments from tax authorities, transactions we enter into and our corporate structure. There can be no assurance that the IRS would not successfully challenge our position. Accordingly, our U.S. counsel expresses no opinion with respect to our PFIC status for any prior, current or future taxable year.

If we are classified as a PFIC in any year with respect to which a U.S. Holder owns the common shares, we will continue to be treated as a PFIC with respect to such U.S. Holder in all succeeding years during which the U.S. Holder owns the common shares, regardless of whether we continue to meet the tests described above unless (1) we cease to be a PFIC and the U.S. Holder has made a “deemed sale” election under the PFIC rules, or (2) the U.S. Holder (A) makes a “QEF Election” (defined below) or (B) is eligible to make and makes a mark-to-market election (as described below), with respect to all taxable years during such U.S. Holder’s holding period in which we are a PFIC. If such a deemed sale election is made, a U.S. Holder will be deemed to have sold the common shares the U.S. Holder holds at their fair market value as of the date of such deemed sale and any gain from such deemed sale would be subject to the rules described below. After the deemed sale election, so long as we do not become a PFIC in a subsequent taxable year, the U.S. Holder’s common shares with respect to which such election was made will not be treated as shares in a PFIC and the U.S. Holder will not be subject to the rules described below with respect to any “excess distribution” the U.S. Holder receives from us or any gain from an actual sale or other disposition of the common shares. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors as to the possibility and consequences of making a deemed sale election if we cease to be a PFIC and such election becomes available.

For each taxable year we are treated as a PFIC with respect to a U.S. Holder, the U.S. Holder will be subject to special tax rules with respect to any “excess distribution” such U.S. Holder receives and any gain such U.S. Holder recognizes from a sale or other disposition (including a pledge) of common shares, unless (1) such U.S. Holder makes a “qualified electing fund” election, or QEF Election, with respect to all taxable years during such U.S. Holder’s holding period in which we are a PFIC, or (2) our common shares constitute “marketable stock” and such U.S. Holder makes a mark-to-market election (as discussed below). Distributions a U.S. Holder receives in a taxable year that are greater than 125% of the average annual distributions a U.S. Holder received during the

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shorter of the three preceding taxable years or the U.S. Holder’s holding period for the common shares will be treated as an excess distribution. Under these special tax rules:

the excess distribution or gain will be allocated ratably over a U.S. Holder’s holding period for the common shares;
the amount allocated to the current taxable year, and any taxable year prior to the first taxable year in which we became a PFIC, will be treated as ordinary income; and
the amount allocated to each other year will be subject to the highest tax rate in effect for that year and the interest charge generally applicable to underpayments of tax will be imposed on the resulting tax attributable to each such year.

The tax liability for amounts allocated to years prior to the year of disposition or “excess distribution” cannot be offset by any net operating losses for such years, and gains (but not losses) realized on the sale of the common shares cannot be treated as capital gains, even if a U.S. Holder holds the common shares as capital assets.

If we are a PFIC, a U.S. Holder will generally be subject to similar rules with respect to distributions we receive from, and our dispositions of the stock of, any of our direct or indirect subsidiaries that also are PFICs, as if such distributions were indirectly received by, and/or dispositions were indirectly carried out by, such U.S. Holder. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of the PFIC rules to our subsidiaries.

If a U.S. Holder makes an effective QEF Election, the U.S. Holder will be required to include in gross income each year, whether or not we make distributions, as capital gains, such U.S. Holder’s pro rata share of our net capital gains and, as ordinary income, such U.S. Holder’s pro rata share of our earnings in excess of our net capital gains. However, a U.S. Holder can only make a QEF Election with respect to common shares in a PFIC if such company agrees to furnish such U.S. Holder with certain tax information annually. We do not currently expect to provide such information in the event that we are classified as a PFIC.

U.S. Holders can avoid the interest charge on excess distributions or gain relating to our common shares by making a mark-to-market election with respect to the common shares, provided that the common shares are “marketable stock.” Common shares will be marketable stock if they are “regularly traded” on certain U.S. stock exchanges or on a non-U.S. stock exchange that meets certain conditions. For these purposes, the common shares will be considered regularly traded during any calendar year during which they are traded, other than in de minimis quantities, on at least 15 days during each calendar quarter. Any trades that have as their principal purpose meeting this requirement will be disregarded. Each U.S. Holder should consult its tax advisor as to the whether a mark-to-market election is available or advisable with respect to the common shares.

A U.S. Holder that makes a mark-to-market election must include in ordinary income for each year an amount equal to the excess, if any, of the fair market value of our common shares at the close of the taxable year over the U.S. Holder’s adjusted tax basis in the common shares. An electing holder may also claim an ordinary loss deduction for the excess, if any, of the U.S. Holder’s adjusted basis in the common shares over the fair market value of the common shares at the close of the taxable year, but this deduction is allowable only to the extent of any net mark-to-market gains for prior years. Gains from an actual sale or other disposition of the common shares will be treated as ordinary income, and any losses incurred on a sale or other disposition of the shares will be treated as an ordinary loss to the extent of any net mark-to-market gains for prior years. Once made, the election cannot be revoked without the consent of the IRS unless the common shares cease to be marketable stock.

However, a mark-to-market election generally cannot be made for equity interests in any lower-tier PFICs that we own, unless shares of such lower- tier PFIC are themselves “marketable stock.” As a result, even if a U.S. Holder validly makes a mark-to-market election with respect to our common shares, the U.S. Holder may continue to be subject to the PFIC rules (described above) with respect to its indirect interest in any of our investments that are treated as an equity interest in a PFIC for U.S. federal income tax purposes. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors as to the availability and desirability of a mark-to-market election, as well as the impact of such election on interests in any lower-tier PFICs.

Unless otherwise provided by the U.S. Treasury, each U.S. shareholder of a PFIC is required to file an annual report containing such information as the U.S. Treasury may require. A U.S. Holder’s failure to file the annual report will cause the statute of limitations for such U.S. Holder’s U.S. federal income tax return to remain open with regard to the items required to be included in such report until three years after the U.S. Holder files the annual report, and, unless such failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, the statute of limitations for the U.S. Holder’s entire U.S. federal income tax return will remain open during such period. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the requirements of filing such information returns under these rules.

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WE STRONGLY URGE A U.S. HOLDER TO CONSULT YOUR TAX ADVISOR REGARDING THE IMPACT OF OUR PFIC STATUS ON THE U.S. HOLDER’S INVESTMENT IN THE COMMON SHARES AS WELL AS THE APPLICATION OF THE PFIC RULES TO INVESTMENT IN THE COMMON SHARES.

Taxation of distributions

Subject to the discussion above under “Passive Foreign Investment Company,” distributions paid on common shares, other than certain distributions of common shares, will generally be treated as dividends to the extent paid out of our current or accumulated earnings and profits (as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles). Because we may not calculate our earnings and profits under U.S. federal income tax principles, we expect that distributions generally will be reported to U.S. Holders as dividends. Non corporate U.S. holders may qualify for the preferential rates of taxation applicable to long term capital gains (i.e., gains from the sale of capital assets held for more than one year) with respect to dividends on ADSs if we are a “qualified foreign corporation.” A non-United States corporation (other than a corporation that is classified as a PFIC for the taxable year in which the dividend is paid or the preceding taxable year) generally will be considered to be a qualified foreign corporation (a) if it is eligible for the benefits of a comprehensive tax treaty with the United States which the Secretary of Treasury of the United States determines is satisfactory for purposes of these rules and which includes an exchange of information provision (which includes the Treaty), or (b) with respect to any dividend it pays on ADSs which are readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States. Therefore, subject to the discussion under “Passive Foreign Investment Company,” above, if the Treaty is applicable, or if the ADSs are readily tradable on an established securities market in the United States, such dividends will generally be “qualified dividend income” in the hands of non-corporate U.S. holders eligible for the preferential tax rates, provided that certain conditions are met, including conditions relating to holding period and the absence of certain risk reduction transactions. The amount of the dividend will be treated as foreign-source dividend income to U.S. Holders and will not be eligible for the dividends-received deduction generally available to U.S. corporations under the Code. Dividends will generally be included in a U.S. Holder’s income on the date of the U.S. Holder’s receipt of the dividend. The amount of any dividend income paid in foreign currency will be the USD amount calculated by reference to the exchange rate in effect on the date of actual or constructive receipt, regardless of whether the payment is in fact converted into USD. If the dividend is converted into USD on the date of receipt, a U.S. Holder should not be required to recognize foreign currency gain or loss in respect of the dividend income. A U.S. Holder may have foreign currency gain or loss if the dividend is converted into USD after the date of receipt. Such gain or loss would generally be treated as U.S.-source ordinary income or loss. The amount of any distribution of property other than cash (and other than certain pro rata distributions of common shares or rights to acquire common shares) will be the fair market value of such property on the date of distribution. For foreign tax credit purposes, our dividends will generally be treated as passive category income. The rules relating to the determination of the U.S. foreign tax credit are complex, and U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the availability of a foreign tax credit in their particular circumstances and the possibility of claiming a deduction (in lieu of the foreign tax credit) for any foreign taxes paid or withheld.

Sale or other taxable disposition of common shares

Subject to the discussion above under “Passive Foreign Investment Company,” gain or loss realized on the sale or other taxable disposition of common shares will be capital gain or loss, and will be long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. Holder held the common shares for more than one year. The amount of the gain or loss will equal the difference between the U.S. Holder’s tax basis in the common shares disposed of and the amount realized on the disposition, in each case as determined in USD. This gain or loss will generally be U.S.-source gain or loss for foreign tax credit purposes. The deductibility of capital losses is subject to limitations.

If the consideration received by a U.S. Holder is not paid in USD, the amount realized will be the USD value of the payment received determined by reference to the spot rate of exchange on the date of the sale or other disposition. However, if the common shares are treated as traded on an “established securities market” and you are either a cash-basis taxpayer or an accrual-basis taxpayer that has made a special election (which must be applied consistently from year to year and cannot be changed without the consent of the IRS), you will determine the USD value of the amount realized in a non-USD currency by translating the amount received at the spot rate of exchange on the settlement date of the sale. If you are an accrual basis taxpayer that is not eligible to or does not elect to determine the amount realized using the spot rate on the settlement date, you will recognize foreign currency gain or loss to the extent of any difference between the USD amount realized on the date of sale or disposition and the USD value of the currency received at the spot rate on the settlement date. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the tax consequences if foreign taxes are imposed on a taxable disposition of common shares and their ability to credit such foreign tax against their U.S. federal income tax liability.

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Information reporting and backup withholding

Payments of dividends and sales proceeds that are made within the United States or through certain U.S.-related financial intermediaries generally are subject to information reporting, and may be subject to backup withholding, unless (i) the U.S. Holder is a corporation or other exempt recipient or (ii) in the case of backup withholding, the U.S. Holder provides a correct taxpayer identification number and certifies that it is not subject to backup withholding.

Backup withholding is not an additional tax. The amount of any backup withholding from a payment to a U.S. Holder will be allowed as a credit against the holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability and may entitle it to a refund, provided that the required information is timely furnished to the IRS.

Information with respect to foreign financial assets

Certain U.S. Holders who are individuals (and, under proposed regulations, certain entities) may be required to report information relating to the common shares, subject to certain exceptions (including an exception for common shares held in accounts maintained by certain U.S. financial institutions). Such U.S. Holders who fail to timely furnish the required information may be subject to a penalty. Additionally, if a U.S. Holder does not file the required information, the statute of limitations with respect to tax returns of the U.S. Holder to which the information relates may not close until three years after such information is filed. U.S. Holders should consult their tax advisors regarding their reporting obligations with respect to their ownership and disposition of the common shares.

Material Dutch tax considerations

Scope of discussion

The following is a general summary of certain material Dutch tax consequences of the acquisition, holding and disposal of the common shares. This summary does not purport to describe all possible tax considerations or consequences that may be relevant to a holder or prospective holder of our common shares and does not purport to deal with the tax consequences applicable to all categories of investors, some of which (such as trusts or similar arrangements) may be subject to special rules. In view of its general nature, this general summary should be treated with corresponding caution.

This summary is based on the tax laws of the Netherlands, published regulations thereunder and published authoritative case law, all as in effect on the date hereof, and all of which are subject to change, possibly with retroactive effect. Where the summary refers to “the Netherlands” or “Dutch” it refers only to the part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands located in Europe.

This discussion is for general information purposes only and is not Dutch tax advice or a complete description of all Dutch tax consequences relating to the acquisition, holding and disposal of the common shares. Holders or prospective holders of our common shares should consult their own tax advisors regarding the Dutch tax consequences relating to the acquisition, holding and disposal of the common shares in light of their particular circumstances.

Please note that this summary does not describe the Dutch tax consequences for:

(i)a holder of common shares if such holder has a substantial interest (aanmerkelijk belang) or deemed substantial interest (fictief aanmerkelijk belang) in us under the Dutch Income Tax Act 2001 (Wet inkomstenbelasting 2001). Generally, a holder of securities in a company is considered to hold a substantial interest in such company, if such holder alone or, in the case of an individual, together with such holder’s partner for Dutch income tax purposes, or any relatives by blood or marriage in the direct line (including foster children), directly or indirectly, holds (i) an interest of 5% or more of the total issued and outstanding capital of that company or of 5% or more of the issued and outstanding capital of a certain class of shares of that company; or (ii) rights to acquire, directly or indirectly, such interest; or (iii) certain profit sharing rights in that company that relate to 5% or more of the company’s annual profits or to 5% or more of the company’s liquidation proceeds. A deemed substantial interest may arise if a substantial interest (or part thereof) in a company has been disposed of, or is deemed to have been disposed of, on a non-recognition basis;
(ii)a holder of common shares, if the common shares held by such holder qualify or qualified as a participation (deelneming) for purposes of the Dutch Corporate Income Tax Act 1969 (Wet op de vennootschapsbelasting 1969). Generally, a holder’s shareholding of 5% or more in a company’s nominal paid-up share capital qualifies as a participation. A holder

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may also have a participation if (a) such holder does not have a shareholding of 5% or more but a related entity (statutorily defined term) has a participation or (b) the company in which the shares are held is a related entity (statutorily defined term);
(iii)pension funds, investment institutions (fiscale beleggingsinstellingen) and tax exempt investment institutions (vrijgestelde beleggingsinstellingen) (each as defined in the Dutch Corporate Income Tax Act 1969) and other entities that are, in whole or in part, not subject to or exempt from Dutch corporate income tax as well as entities that are exempt from corporate income tax in their country of residence, such country of residence being another state of the European Union, Norway, Liechtenstein, Iceland or any other state with which the Netherlands has agreed to exchange information in line with international standards; and
(iv)a holder of common shares if such holder is an individual for whom the common shares or any benefit derived from the common shares is a remuneration or deemed to be a remuneration for (employment) activities performed by such holder or certain individuals related to such holder (as defined in the Dutch Income Tax Act 2001).

Dividend withholding tax

Dividends distributed by us generally are subject to Dutch dividend withholding tax at a rate of 15%. Generally, we are responsible for the withholding of such dividend withholding tax at source; the Dutch dividend withholding tax is for the account of the holder of common shares.

The expression “dividends distributed” includes, among other things:

distributions in cash or in kind, deemed and constructive distributions and repayments of paid-in capital not recognized for Dutch dividend withholding tax purposes;
liquidation proceeds, proceeds from the redemption of common shares, or proceeds from the repurchase of common shares by us or one of our subsidiaries or other affiliated entities, other than as a temporary portfolio investment (tijdelijke belegging), in each case to the extent such proceeds exceed the average paid-in capital of those common shares as recognized for Dutch dividend withholding tax purposes;
an amount equal to the par value of common shares issued or an increase of the par value of common shares, to the extent that it does not appear that a contribution, recognized for Dutch dividend withholding tax purposes, has been made or will be made; and
partial repayment of the paid-in capital, recognized for Dutch dividend withholding tax purposes, if and to the extent that we have net profits (zuivere winst), unless (i) the general meeting has resolved in advance to make such repayment and (ii) the par value of the common shares concerned has been reduced by an equal amount by way of an amendment of our articles of association. The term “net profits” includes anticipated profits that have yet to be realized.

Individuals and corporate legal entities who are resident or deemed to be resident of the Netherlands for Dutch income tax purposes, generally are entitled to a credit for any Dutch dividend withholding tax against their Dutch (corporate) income tax liability. For corporate legal entities who are resident or deemed to be resident of the Netherlands for Dutch tax purposes, the credit in any given year is limited to the amount of corporate income tax payable in respect of the relevant year with an indefinite carry forward of any excess amount. The same generally applies to holders of common shares that are neither resident nor deemed to be resident of the Netherlands if the common shares are attributable to a Dutch permanent establishment of such non-resident holder.

A holder of common shares resident of a country other than the Netherlands may, depending on such holder’s specific circumstances, be entitled to exemptions from, reduction of, or full or partial refund of, Dutch dividend withholding tax under Dutch national tax legislation, EU law, or treaties for the avoidance of double taxation in effect between the Netherlands and such other country.

Remittance to the Dutch tax authorities

Under certain circumstances, we may not be required to remit all amounts withheld as Dutch dividend withholding tax to the Dutch tax authorities. If we have received a profit distribution from a qualifying foreign subsidiary (as described in the Dutch Dividend Withholding Tax Act 1965; Wet op de dividendbelasting 1965) which distribution (i) is exempt from Dutch corporate income tax and

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(ii) has been subject to a foreign withholding tax of at least 5%. The amount that does not have to be remitted to the Dutch tax authorities can generally not exceed the lesser of:

3% of the dividends distributed by us subject to Dutch dividend withholding tax; and
3% of the dividends and profit distributions, before deduction of foreign withholding taxes, received by us from qualifying foreign subsidiaries in the calendar year in which we distributed the dividends (up to the date of the distribution by us) and the two preceding calendar years, as far as such dividends and profit distributions have not yet been taken into account for purposes of establishing the above mentioned reduction.

Although this reduction reduces the amount of Dutch dividend withholding tax that we are required to remit to the Dutch tax authorities, it does not reduce the amount of Dutch dividend withholding tax that we are required to withhold on dividends distributed by us.

Dividend stripping

Pursuant to legislation to counteract “dividend stripping”, a reduction, exemption, credit or refund of Dutch dividend withholding tax is denied if the recipient of the dividend is not the beneficial owner as described in the Dutch Dividend Withholding Tax Act 1965. This legislation generally targets situations in which a shareholder retains its economic interest in shares but reduces the withholding tax costs on dividends by a transaction with another party. It is not required for these rules to apply that the recipient of the dividends is aware that a dividend stripping transaction took place. The Dutch State Secretary of Finance takes the position that the definition of beneficial ownership introduced by this legislation will also be applied in the context of a double taxation convention.

Conditional withholding tax on dividends (as of 1 January 2024)

As of 1 January 2024, a Dutch conditional withholding tax will be imposed on dividends distributed by us to entities related (gelieerd) to us (within the meaning of the Dutch Withholding Tax Act 2021; Wet bronbelasting 2021), if such related entity:

(i)is considered to be resident (gevestigd) in a jurisdiction that is listed in the yearly updated Dutch Regulation on low-taxing states and non-cooperative jurisdictions for tax purposes (Regeling laagbelastende staten en niet-coöperatieve rechtsgebieden voor belastingdoeleinden) (a "Listed Jurisdiction"); or
(ii)has a permanent establishment located in a Listed Jurisdiction to which the common shares are attributable; or
(iii)holds the common shares for the main purpose or one of the main purposes to avoid taxation for another person or entity and there is an artificial arrangement or transaction or a series of artificial arrangements or transactions; or
(iv)is not considered to be the beneficial owner of the common shares in its jurisdiction of residence because such jurisdiction treats another entity as the beneficial owner of the common shares (a hybrid mismatch); or
(v)is not resident in any jurisdiction (also a hybrid mismatch); or
(vi)is a reverse hybrid (within the meaning of Article 2(12) of the Dutch Corporate Income Tax Act 1969), if and to the extent (x) there is a participant in the reverse hybrid which is related (gelieerd) to the reverse hybrid, (y) the jurisdiction of residence of such participant treats the reverse hybrid as transparent for tax purposes and (z) such participant would have been subject to the Dutch conditional withholding tax in respect of dividends distributed by us without the interposition of the reverse hybrid, all within the meaning of the Dutch Withholding Tax Act 2021.

The Dutch conditional withholding tax on dividends will be imposed at the highest Dutch corporate income tax rate in effect at the time of the distribution (currently 25.8%). The Dutch conditional withholding tax on dividends will be reduced, but not below zero, by any regular Dutch dividend withholding tax withheld in respect of the same dividend distribution. As such, based on the currently applicable rates, the overall effective tax rate of withholding the regular Dutch dividend withholding tax (as described above) and the Dutch conditional withholding tax on dividends will not exceed the highest corporate income tax rate in effect at the time of the distribution (currently 25.8%).

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Taxes on income and capital gains

Dutch resident entities

Generally, if the holder of common shares is an entity a resident or deemed to be resident of the Netherlands for Dutch corporate income tax purposes (a “Dutch Resident Entity”), any income derived or deemed to be derived from the common shares or any capital gains realized on the disposal or deemed disposal of the common shares is subject to Dutch corporate income tax at a rate of 15% with respect to taxable profits up to €395,000 and 25.8% with respect to taxable profits in excess of that amount (rates and brackets for 2022).

Dutch resident individuals

If the holder of common shares is an individual resident or deemed to be resident of the Netherlands for Dutch income tax purposes (a “Dutch Resident Individual”), any income derived or deemed to be derived from the common shares or any capital gains realized on the disposal or deemed disposal of the common shares is subject to Dutch income tax at progressive rates (with a maximum of 49.5% in 2022), if:

(i)the common shares are attributable to an enterprise from which the holder of common shares derives a share of the profit, whether as an entrepreneur (ondernemer) or as a person who has a co-entitlement to the net worth (medegerechtigd tot het vermogen) of such enterprise without being a shareholder (as defined in the Dutch Income Tax Act 2001); or
(ii)the holder of common shares is considered to perform activities with respect to the common shares that go beyond ordinary asset management (normaal, actief vermogensbeheer) or otherwise derives benefits from the common shares that are taxable as benefits from miscellaneous activities (resultaat uit overige werkzaamheden).

If the above-mentioned conditions (i) and (ii) do not apply to the Dutch Resident Individual, the Dutch Resident Individual's, net investment assets (rendementsgrondslag) for the year will be subject to an annual Dutch income tax on a deemed return (with a maximum of 5.53% in 2022) under the regime for savings and investments (inkomen uit sparen en beleggen), insofar the Dutch resident individual’s net investment assets for the year exceed a statutory threshold (heffingvrij vermogen). The net investment assets for the year are the fair market value of the investment assets less the allowable liabilities on January 1 of the relevant calendar year. The common shares are included as investment assets. For the net investment assets on January 1, 2022, the deemed return ranges from 1.82% up to 5.53% (depending on the aggregate amount of the net investment assets of the Dutch Resident Individual on January 1, 2022).

The deemed return on the Dutch Resident Individual's net investment assets for the year is taxed at a flat rate of 31% (rate for 2022). Actual income or capital gains realized in respect of the Shares are as such not subject to Dutch income tax.

On 24 December 2021, the Dutch Supreme Court ruled that the Dutch income tax levy on savings and investments, in 2017 and 2018, violated the European Convention on Human Rights. The Dutch tax consequences of that ruling are not immediately clear. The new Dutch Government intends to start calculating the taxation on savings and investments on actual returns realized from savings and investments (instead of on a deemed return) starting in 2025. The Dutch Supreme Court ruling could make the Dutch Government move faster on the issue. Prospective investors should carefully consider the tax consequences of this Supreme Court ruling and consult their own tax advisor about their own tax situation.

Non-residents of the Netherlands

A holder of common shares that is neither a Dutch Resident Entity nor a Dutch Resident Individual will not be subject to Dutch (corporate) income tax in respect of income derived from or deemed to be derived from the common shares or in respect of any capital gains realized on the disposal or deemed disposal of the common shares, provided that:

(i)such holder does not have an interest in an enterprise or deemed enterprise (as defined in the Dutch Income Tax Act 2001 and the Dutch Corporate Income Tax Act 1969) which, in whole or in part, is either effectively managed in the Netherlands or carried on through a permanent establishment, a deemed permanent establishment or a permanent representative in the Netherlands and to which enterprise or part of an enterprise the common shares are attributable; and

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(ii)in the event the holder is an individual, such holder does not carry out any activities in the Netherlands with respect to the common shares that go beyond ordinary asset management and does not otherwise derive benefits from the common shares that are taxable as benefits from miscellaneous activities in the Netherlands.

Gift and inheritance taxes

Residents of the Netherlands

Gift or inheritance taxes will arise in the Netherlands with respect to a transfer of the common shares by way of a gift by, or on the death of, a holder of common shares who is resident or deemed resident of the Netherlands at the time of the gift or such holder’s death.

Non-residents of the Netherlands

No gift or inheritance taxes will arise in the Netherlands with respect to a transfer of the common shares by way of a gift by, or on the death of, a holder of common shares who is neither resident nor deemed to be resident of the Netherlands, unless:

(i)in the case of a gift of a common share by an individual who at the date of the gift was neither resident nor deemed to be resident of the Netherlands, such individual dies within 180 days after the date of the gift, while being resident or deemed to be resident of the Netherlands; or
(ii)in the case of a gift of a common share is made under a condition precedent, the holder of the common shares is resident or is deemed to be resident of the Netherlands at the time the condition is fulfilled; or
(iii)the transfer is otherwise construed as a gift or inheritance made by, or on behalf of, a person who, at the time of the gift or death, is or is deemed to be resident of the Netherlands.

For purposes of Dutch gift and inheritance taxes, amongst others, a person that holds the Dutch nationality will be deemed to be resident of the Netherlands if such person has been a resident of the Netherlands at any time during the ten years preceding the date of the gift or such person’s death. Additionally, for purposes of Dutch gift tax, amongst others, a person not holding the Dutch nationality will be deemed to be resident of the Netherlands if such person has been a resident of the Netherlands at any time during the twelve months preceding the date of the gift. Applicable tax treaties may override deemed residency.

Value added tax (VAT)

No Dutch VAT will be payable by a holder of common shares in respect of any payment in consideration for the holding or disposal of the common shares.

Other taxes and duties

No Dutch registration tax, stamp duty or any other similar documentary tax or duty will be payable by, or on behalf of, a holder of common shares in respect of any payment in consideration for the acquisition, holding or disposal of the common shares.

Residency

A holder of common shares will not become, and will not be deemed to be, resident of the Netherlands for Dutch tax purposes by reason only of the acquisition and holding of the common shares.

Real Property Transfer Tax

Under circumstances, our common shares could, for the purposes of Dutch real property transfer tax (overdrachtsbelasting), be treated as real property (fictieve onroerende zaken) located in the Netherlands, in which case this tax could be payable upon acquisition of our common shares. Our common shares will generally not be treated as real property (fictieve onroerende zaken) if at the time of, or at any time during the year preceding, the acquisition of the common shares:

(i)our assets do not and did not include real property situated in the Netherlands; or

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(ii)our assets only include and included real property, situated either in or outside the Netherlands, that we do not and did not hold, and currently do not intend to hold, predominantly as a financial investment.

Real property as referred to under (i) and (ii) above includes legal ownership and more limited legal rights over the property (rights in rem) (zakelijke rechten) as well as contractual rights that give us economic exposure to the value of such real property, and certain participations or interests in entities that are treated as real property (fictieve onroerende zaken).

Our assets do not include and have not included real property as described above. Consequently, no Dutch real property transfer tax becomes payable upon an acquisition of the common shares.

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LEGAL MATTERS

Certain legal matters relating to this offering, including with respect to the validity of the common shares and certain other matters of Dutch law will be passed upon for us by NautaDutilh N.V. Certain matters of U.S. federal and New York State law will be passed upon for us by Ballard Spahr LLP. Certain legal matters relating to this offering will be passed upon for JMP Securities by Duane Morris LLP, New York, New York.

EXPERTS

The financial statements incorporated in this prospectus supplement by reference to the Annual Report on Form 20-F for the year ended December 31, 2021 have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of PricewaterhouseCoopers Accountants N.V., an independent registered public accounting firm, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

The current address of PricewaterhouseCoopers Accountants N.V. is Boschdijktunnel 10, 5611 AG Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

This prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus are part of the registration statement on Form F-3 we filed with the SEC under the Securities Act and do not contain all the information set forth in the registration statement. You should review the information and exhibits in registration statement for further information on us and our consolidated subsidiaries and the securities we are offering. Whenever a reference is made in this prospectus supplement or the accompanying prospectus to any of our contracts or other documents, the reference may not be complete and you should refer to the exhibits that are a part of the registration statement or the exhibits to the reports or other documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying prospectus for a copy of such contract, agreement or other document.

Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at www.lavatherapeutics.com. Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and you should not consider information contained on our website to be part of this prospectus supplement.

INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference information into this prospectus supplement the information we file with it. This means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is considered to be a part of this prospectus supplement, except for any information superseded by information that is included directly in this prospectus supplement or incorporated by reference subsequent to the date of this prospectus supplement.

We incorporate by reference the following documents or information that we have filed with the SEC:

Our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021 filed on March 24, 2022; and
The description of our common shares contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on March 18, 2021, as updated by the description of our common shares filed as Exhibit 2.1 to our Annual Report on Form 20-F for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021.

All annual reports we file with the SEC pursuant to the Exchange Act on Form 20-F after the date of this prospectus supplement and prior to termination or expiration of this registration statement shall be deemed incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and to be part hereof from the date of filing of such documents. We may incorporate by reference any Form 6-K subsequently submitted to the SEC by identifying in such Form 6-K that it is being incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement.

Documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement are available from us without charge upon written or oral request, excluding any exhibits to those documents that are not specifically incorporated by reference into those documents. You can obtain documents incorporated by reference in this document by requesting them from us in writing at 3584 CM Utrecht, The Netherlands or via telephone at +31 6 3000 3035.

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$50,000,000

A close-up of a logo  Description automatically generated with low confidence

Common Shares

____________________________________

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

___________________________________

JMP Securities
A CITIZENS COMPANY

, 2022


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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

Item 8. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

Under Dutch law, our directors may be held liable for damages in the event of improper or negligent performance of their duties. They may be held jointly and severally liable for damages to our company and to third parties for infringement of our articles of association or of certain provisions of Dutch law. In certain circumstances, they may also incur additional specific civil and criminal liabilities. Subject to certain exceptions, our articles of association provide for indemnification of our current and former directors and other current and former officers and employees as designated by our board of directors. No indemnification under our articles of association shall be given to an indemnified person:

if a competent court or arbitral tribunal has established, without having (or no longer having) the possibility for appeal, that the acts or omissions of such indemnified person that led to the financial losses, damages, expenses, suit, claim, action or legal proceedings as described above are of an unlawful nature (including acts or omissions which are considered to constitute malice, gross negligence, intentional recklessness and/or serious culpability attributable to such indemnified person);
to the extent that his or her financial losses, damages and expenses are covered under insurance and the relevant insurer has settled, or has provided reimbursement for, these financial losses, damages and expenses (or has irrevocably undertaken to do so);
in relation to proceedings brought by such indemnified person against our company, except for proceedings brought to enforce indemnification to which he is entitled pursuant to our articles of association, pursuant to an agreement between such indemnified person and our company which has been approved by our board of directors or pursuant to insurance taken out by our company for the benefit of such indemnified person; and
for any financial losses, damages or expenses incurred in connection with a settlement of any proceedings effected without our prior consent.

Under our articles of association, our Board may stipulate additional terms, conditions and restrictions in relation to the indemnification described above.

We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our current directors and executive officers.

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the Company, the Company has been advised that, in the opinion of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable.

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Item 9. Exhibits

.(a) The following documents are filed as part of this registration statement.

Exhibit
Number

    

Description of Exhibit

 

1.1*

Form of Underwriting Agreement.

1.2

Equity Distribution Agreement, dated as of April 11, 2022, between LAVA Therapeutics N.V. and JMP Securities LLC

4.1

English translation of Articles of Association of LAVA Therapeutics N.V. (incorporated herein by reference to Exhibit 3.2 of the registrant’s Registration Statement on Form F-1/A filed with the SEC on March 18, 2021)

4.2

Form of Indenture

4.3*

Form of Subordinated Indenture

4.4*

Form of Senior Note

4.5*

Form of Subordinated Note

4.6*

Form of Warrant Agreement

4.7*

Form of Unit Agreement

5.1

Opinion of NautaDutilh N.V.

5.2

Opinion of Ballard Spahr LLP

23.1

Consent of PricewaterhouseCoopers Accountants N.V.

23.2

Consent of NautaDutilh N.V. (included in Exhibit 5.1)

23.3

Consent of Ballard Spahr LLP (included in Exhibit 5.2)

24.1

Powers of Attorney (included on signature page to the registration statement)

25.1**

Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1

107

Filing Fee Exhibit


*

To be filed, if necessary, by amendment

**

To be filed in accordance with the requirements of Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

Item 10. Undertakings

(a)The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:
(1)To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:
(i)To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

(ii)To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

(iii)To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;

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provided, however, that:

(A)paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (ii), and (iii) above do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is a part of the registration statement.
(2)That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(3)To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

(4)To file a post-effective amendment to the registration statement to include any financial statements required by Item 8.A. of Form 20-F at the start of any delayed offering or throughout a continuous offering. Financial statements and information otherwise required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933 need not be furnished, provided, that the registrant includes in the prospectus, by means of a post-effective amendment, financial statements required pursuant to this paragraph (a)(4) and other information necessary to ensure that all other information in the prospectus is at least as current as the date of those financial statements. Notwithstanding the foregoing, with respect to registration statements on Form F-3, a post-effective amendment need not be filed to include financial statements and information required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933, or Item 8.A of Form 20-F if such financial statements and information are contained in periodic reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the Form F-3.

(5)That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:
(A)Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

(B)Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.
(6)That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of securities:

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The undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

(i)Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;
(ii)Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;
(iii)The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and
(iv)Any other communications that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.
(b)The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(c)Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
(d)The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that:
(1)For purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of this registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in a form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of this registration statement as of the time it was declared effective.

(2)For the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

(e)The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act (“Act”) in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Act.

II-4


Table of Contents

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form F-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Utrecht, the Netherlands on April 12, 2022.

LAVA THERAPEUTICS N.V.

By:

/s/ Edward F. Smith

Name:

 Edward F. Smith

Title:

 Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)

KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below hereby constitutes and appoints Stephen Hurly, Edward F. Smith, and Amy Garabedian as his or her true and lawful attorney-in-fact and agent, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him or her and in his or her name, place and stead in any and all capacities, in connection with this registration statement, including to sign in the name and on behalf of the undersigned, this registration statement and any and all amendments thereto, including post-effective amendments and registrations filed pursuant to Rule 462 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and other documents in connection therewith, with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto such attorney-in-fact and agent full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as he might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or his substitute, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons on April 12, 2022 in the capacities indicated:

Name

    

Title

/s/ Stephen Hurly

Stephen Hurly

Chief Executive Officer and Executive Director (Principal Executive Officer)

/s/ Edward F. Smith

Edward F. Smith

Chief Financial Officer

(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)

/s/ Kapil Dhingra, M.B.B.S.

Kapil Dhingra, M.B.B.S.

Non-Executive Director and Chairperson of the Board

/s/ Erik J. van den Berg

Erik J. van den Berg

Non-Executive Director

/s/ Joël J.P. Jean-Mairet, Ph.D.

Joël J.P. Jean-Mairet, Ph.D.

Non-Executive Director

/s/ Nanna Lüneborg, Ph.D.

Nanna Lüneborg, Ph.D.

Non-Executive Director

/s/ Stefan Luzi, Ph.D.

Stefan Luzi, Ph.D.

Non-Executive Director

/s/ Guido Magni, M.D., Ph.D.

Guido Magni, M.D., Ph.D.

Non-Executive Director

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Table of Contents

/s/ Karen Wilson

Karen Wilson

Non-Executive Director

/s/ Stephen Hurly

Stephen Hurly

Authorized Representative in the United States

II-6


Exhibit 1.2

e

LAVA THERAPEUTICS N.V.

$50,000,000

Common Stock

EQUITY DISTRIBUTION AGREEMENT

Dated: April 11, 2022


TABLE OF CONTENTS

SECTION 1.Description of Securities.

SECTION 2.Placements.

SECTION 3.Sale of Placement Securities by the Placement Agent

SECTION 4.Suspension of Sales

SECTION 5.Representations and Warranties.

SECTION 6.Sale and Delivery to the Placement Agent; Settlement.

SECTION 7.Covenants of the Company

SECTION 8.Payment of Expenses.

SECTION 9.Conditions of the Placement Agent’s Obligations

SECTION 10.Indemnity and Contribution by the Company and the Placement Agent

SECTION 11.Representations, Warranties and Agreements to Survive Delivery

SECTION 12.Termination of Agreement.

SECTION 13.Notices

SECTION 14.Parties

SECTION 15.Adjustments for Stock Splits

SECTION 16.Governing Law and Time

SECTION 17.Effect of Headings

SECTION 18.Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses

SECTION 19.Absence of Fiduciary Relationship


TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXHIBITS

Schedule AForm of Placement Notice

Schedule BAuthorized Individuals for Placement Notices and Acceptances

Schedule CCompensation

Schedule DOfficer Certificate

Schedule EIssuer Free Writing Prospectus


LAVA THERAPEUTICS N.V.

$50,000,000

Common Stock

EQUITY DISTRIBUTION AGREEMENT

April 11, 2022

JMP Securities LLC

600 Montgomery Street, Suite 1100

San Francisco, California 94111

Ladies and Gentlemen:

LAVA Therapeutics N.V., a public limited company organized under the laws of The Netherlands (naamloze vennootschap) (the “Company”) confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with JMP Securities LLC (the “Placement Agent”), as follows:

SECTION 1.Description of Securities.

The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through or to the Placement Agent, acting as agent and/or principal, common shares in the capital of the Company (the “Securities”), nominal value €0.12 per share (common shares in the capital of the Company generally hereafter to be referred to as “Common Stock”), having an aggregate offering amount of up to $50,000,000. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, except as set forth in a Placement Notice (as defined below), the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitations set forth in this Section 1 on the number of Securities issued and sold under this Agreement shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and the Placement Agent shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance.  The issuance and sale of the Securities through or to the Placement Agent will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) to be filed by the Company and when declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”), although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to offer, sell or issue its Common Stock or any other securities under this Agreement, through or to the Placement Agent or pursuant to the Registration Statement.

The Company shall file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Securities Act”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form F-3, including a base prospectus relating to certain securities, including the Securities, to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Exchange Act”).  The Company has prepared an equity distribution prospectus supplement specifically relating to the Securities (the “Equity Distribution Prospectus”) that will be included as part of such registration statement.  The Company will furnish to the Placement Agent, for use by the Placement Agent, copies of the Equity Distribution Prospectus included as part of such registration statement.  Except where the context otherwise


requires, such registration statement, as amended when it becomes effective, and any post-effective amendment thereto, including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B or 462(b) of the Securities Act, is herein called the “Registration Statement.”  The base prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, and the Equity Distribution Prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, each of which is included in the Registration Statement, as it or they may be supplemented by any prospectus supplement, in the form in which such base prospectus, Equity Distribution Prospectus and/or prospectus supplement have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, together with any “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433 of the Securities Act, relating to the Securities that (i) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company or (ii) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i), in each case in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g) is herein called the “Prospectus.”  Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein, and any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing after the execution hereof of any document with the Commission deemed to be incorporated by reference therein.  Any reference herein to financial statements and schedules and other information that is “contained,” “included” or “stated” in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto (and all other references of like import) shall be deemed to mean and include all such financial statements and schedules and other information that is incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be.  Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to any of the foregoing shall be deemed to include the copy filed with the Commission pursuant to the Commission’s Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval system (“EDGAR”); all references in this Agreement to any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (other than any Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses that, pursuant to Rule 433 under the Securities Act, are not required to be filed with the Commission) shall be deemed to include the copy thereof filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR.

SECTION 2.Placements.

Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell the Securities hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify the Placement Agent by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) containing the parameters in accordance with which it desires the Securities to be sold, which shall at a minimum include the number of Securities to be sold (the “Placement Securities”), the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of Securities that may be sold in any one Trading Day (as defined in Section 3) and any minimum price below which sales may not be made (a “Placement Notice”), a form of which containing such minimum sales parameters necessary is attached hereto as Schedule A, provided that the Company shall ensure that (i) the minimum sales price must always be such that sales of Placement Securities cannot result in Net Proceeds (as defined below) being less than the aggregate nominal value of such Placement Shares, and (ii) the number of Placement Securities shall not exceed the number of Common Stock that (A) is available for issuance by the Company under its authorized share capital (maatschappelijk kapitaal) (taking into account any Common Stock reserved for issuance under the Company's equity plans or underlying securities convertible into, exchangeable for or exercisable for Common Stock) and (B) the board of directors of the Company is


authorized, without further authorization or approval from the Company's general meeting, to issue without pre-emptive rights.  The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule B (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such exhibit), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from the Placement Agent set forth on Schedule B, as such Schedule B may be amended from time to time.  If the Placement Agent wishes to accept such proposed terms included in the Placement Notice (which it may decline to do so for any reason in its sole discretion) or, following discussion with the Company, wishes to accept amended terms, the Placement Agent will, prior to 4:30 p.m. (Eastern Time) on the Business Day (as defined below) following the Business Day on which such Placement Notice is delivered to the Placement Agent, issue to the Company a notice by email (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) addressed to all of the individuals from the Company and the Placement Agent set forth on Schedule B) setting forth the terms that the Placement Agent is willing to accept.  Where the terms provided in the Placement Notice are amended as provided for in the immediately preceding sentence, such terms will not be binding on the Company or the Placement Agent until the Company delivers to the Placement Agent an acceptance by email (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) of all of the terms of such Placement Notice, as amended (the “Acceptance”), which email shall be addressed to all of the individuals from the Company and the Placement Agent set forth on Schedule B. The Placement Notice (as amended by the corresponding Acceptance, if applicable) shall be effective immediately upon receipt by the Placement Agent or upon receipt by the Placement Agent of the Company’s Acceptance, as the case may be, and shall continue in effect unless and until (i) the entire amount of the Placement Securities have been sold, (ii) in accordance with the Placement Notice requirements set forth in the second sentence of this paragraph, the Company terminates the Placement Notice, (iii) the Company issues a subsequent Placement Notice with parameters explicitly superseding those on the earlier dated Placement Notice, (iv) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 9 or Section 12, (v) either party shall have suspended the sale of the Placement Securities in accordance with Section 4 below, or (vi) in accordance with the notice requirements of this Agreement, the Agent declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason within two Business Days of the date the Placement Agent receives the Placement Notice.  The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to the Placement Agent in connection with the sale of the Placement Securities shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule C.   In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice (as amended by the corresponding Acceptance, if applicable), the terms of the Placement Notice (as amended by the corresponding Acceptance, if applicable) will control.  The term “Business Day” means each Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday or Friday that is not a day on which banking institutions in New York are generally authorized or obligated by law or executive order to close.  

SECTION 3.Sale of Placement Securities by the Placement Agent.

Subject to the provisions of Section 6(a), the Placement Agent, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable laws and regulations to sell the Placement Securities up to the amount specified in the Placement Notice, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice (as amended by the corresponding Acceptance, if applicable).  The Placement Agent will provide written confirmation to the Company no later than the opening of each Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Securities hereunder setting forth the number of Placement Securities sold on such day, the compensation payable by the Company to the Placement Agent pursuant to Section 2 with respect to such sales, and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company, with an itemization of the deductions made by the Placement Agent (as set forth in Section 6(b))


from the gross proceeds that it receives from such sales.  Subject to the terms of the Placement Notice (as amended by the corresponding Acceptance, if applicable), the Placement Agent may sell Placement Securities by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act, excluding for the avoidance of doubt any offering of Placement Securities to the public in any Member State of the European Economic Area.  If expressly authorized in a Placement Notice (as amended by the corresponding Acceptance, if applicable), the Placement Agent may also sell Placement Securities in negotiated transactions.  Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 6(rr), except as may be otherwise agreed by the Company and the Placement Agent, the Placement Agent shall not purchase Placement Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement unless the Company and the Placement Agent enter into a separate written agreement setting forth the terms of such sale.  For the purposes hereof, “Trading Day” means any day on which shares of Common Stock are purchased and sold on the principal market on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted and during which there has been no market disruption of, unscheduled closing of or suspension of trading on such principal market.

SECTION 4.Suspension of Sales.  The Company or the Placement Agent may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule B, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable facsimile transmission or email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule B), suspend any sale of Placement Securities (a “Suspension”); provided, however, that such Suspension shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Securities sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice.  Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against the other unless it is made to one of the individuals named on Schedule B hereto, as such Schedule B may be amended from time to time. While a Suspension is in effect any obligations under Sections 7(o), 7(p), 7(q) and 7(r) with respect to the delivery of certificates, opinions, or comfort letters to the Placement Agent, shall be waived.
SECTION 5.Representations and Warranties.
(a)Representations and Warranties by the Company.  The Company represents and warrants to the Placement Agent as of the date hereof and as of each Representation Date (as defined herein) on which a certificate is required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(o) of this Agreement and as of the time of each sale of any Securities pursuant to this Agreement (the “Applicable Time”), and agrees with the Placement Agent, as follows:
(1)Compliance with Registration Requirements.  Prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder, the Securities will be duly registered under the Securities Act pursuant to the Registration Statement.  With respect to any registration statement to be filed to register the offer and sale of the Securities pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, including the documents incorporated by reference therein, (a “Rule 462(b) Registration Statement”), such registration statement will be filed with the Commission and become effective under the Securities Act no later than 10:00 P.M., New York City time, on the date required to increase the dollar amount of Securities available to be offered and sold under the Registration Statement, and no stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement and no proceedings for such purpose have been instituted or are pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, are threatened by the Commission, and any request on the part of the Commission for additional information has been complied with. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in this Agreement, the representations and warranties set forth in this paragraph of this Section 5(a)(1) shall not be made by the Company until the Registration Statement has been declared effective by the Commission.

At the respective times each of the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement and any post-effective amendments thereto became or becomes effective, the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement and any amendments and supplements thereto complied and will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act.  The Company meets the requirements for use of Form F-3 under the Securities Act subject to Instruction I.B.1 thereunder.

The Registration Statement, as of the time it becomes effective and each effective date with respect thereto, will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.  Neither the Prospectus nor any amendments or supplements thereto, as of their respective dates, and at each Applicable Time and Settlement Date (as defined below), as the case may be, included or will include an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted or will omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

The representations and warranties set forth in the immediately preceding paragraph shall not apply to statements in or omissions from the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, made in reliance upon and in conformity with information furnished to the Company in writing by the Placement Agent expressly for use therein.

The copies of the Registration Statement and any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement and any amendments thereto, any other preliminary prospectus, each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (as defined below) that is required to be filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 433 under the Securities Act and the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto delivered and to be delivered to the Placement Agent (electronically or otherwise) in connection with the offering of the Securities were and will be identical to the electronically transmitted copies thereof filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T.  “Issuer Free Writing Prospectus” means any “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433 under the Securities Act, relating to the Securities that (i) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company, (ii) is a “road show” that is a “written communication” within the meaning of Rule 433(d)(8)(i) under the Securities Act whether or not required to be filed with the Commission, or (iii) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i) under the Securities Act because it contains a description of the Securities or of the offering that does not reflect the final terms, and all free writing prospectuses that are listed in Schedule E hereto, as such Schedule E may be modified from time to time, in each case in the form furnished (electronically or otherwise) to the Placement Agent for use in connection with the offering of the Securities.

Each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus relating to the Securities, as of its issue date and as of each Applicable Time and Settlement Date (as defined below), did not, does not and will not include any information that conflicted, conflicts or will conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, including any incorporated document deemed to be a part thereof that has not been superseded or modified; each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, as supplemented by and taken together with the Prospectus, as of the Applicable Time and Settlement Date (as defined below), will not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The foregoing sentence does not apply to statements in or


omissions from any issuer free writing prospectus made in reliance upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Placement Agent specifically for use therein.

(1)Company Capitalization.  The Company's authorized share capital is as set forth in the Prospectus; the outstanding Common Stock have been duly and validly authorized and issued and are fully paid and nonassessable (meaning that the holders of the Common Stock will not by reason of merely being such a holder, be subject to assessment or calls by the Company or its creditors for further payment on such Common Stock).
(2)Disclosure Regarding Outstanding Securities.  Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement or Prospectus, there are no outstanding (A) securities or obligations of the Company or the subsidiaries of the Company required to be set forth in Exhibit 2.1 to the Company’s Form 20-F for the most recent completed fiscal year, if any (each, a “Subsidiary,” and together, the “Subsidiaries”) convertible into or exchangeable for any capital stock of or partnership interests, membership interests or other equity interests, as the case may be, in the Company or any such Subsidiary, (B) warrants, rights or options to subscribe for or purchase from the Company or any Subsidiary any such capital stock or any such convertible or exchangeable securities or obligations, or (C) except for awards granted pursuant to the Company’s equity incentive plans, obligations of the Company or any Subsidiary to issue any securities or obligations, any such convertible or exchangeable securities or obligations, or any such warrants, rights or options the existence of which, in each case (A), (B) and (C), is required to be disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and are not so disclosed.
(3)Good Standing.  Each of the Company and the Subsidiaries has been duly incorporated or organized and is validly existing as a corporation, general or limited partnership or limited liability company, as the case may be, except to the extent that the failure to be so organized or in good standing would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have any material adverse effect on, or change with respect to, the assets, business operation, earnings, prospects, properties or financial condition, present or prospective, of the Company and its Subsidiaries taken as a whole (a “Material Adverse Effect” or “Material Adverse Change”) and is in good standing (to the extent the concept of good standing is applicable in such jurisdiction) under the laws of its respective jurisdiction of incorporation or organization except to the extent that the failure to be so qualified or in good standing would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.
(4)Corporate Power.  Each of the Company and the Subsidiaries have the corporate, partnership or limited liability company power, as the case may be, and authority to own their respective properties and conduct their respective businesses, each as described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus except to the extent that the failure to have such power or authority would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, and, in the case of the Company, to execute and deliver this Agreement and to consummate the transactions described in this Agreement.
(5)Foreign Qualifications.  The Company and the Subsidiaries are duly qualified or licensed and in good standing in each jurisdiction where such qualification or license is required except where the failure, individually or in the aggregate, to be so qualified or licensed would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.
(6)Absence of Defaults.  Except as disclosed in the Prospectus, neither the Company nor any Subsidiary is in breach of or in default under (nor has any event occurred which with notice, lapse of time, or both would constitute a breach of, or default under), its respective

organizational documents, or in the performance or observance of any obligation, agreement, covenant or condition contained in any license, indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan or credit agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any Subsidiary is a party or by which any of them or their respective properties or assets is bound, except for such breaches or defaults which would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.
(7)Absence of Conflicts.  The execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and consummation of the transactions contemplated herein will not (A) conflict with, or result in any breach of, or constitute a default under (nor constitute any event which with notice, lapse of time, or both would constitute a breach of, or default under): (1) any provision of the organizational documents of the Company or any Subsidiary, or (2) any provision of any license, indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan or credit agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any Subsidiary is a party or by which any of them or their respective assets or properties is bound or affected, or under any federal, state, local or foreign law, regulation or rule or any decree, judgment or order applicable to the Company or any Subsidiary, except in the case of clause (2), for such conflicts, breaches or defaults which would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; or (B) result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge, claim or encumbrance upon any property or asset of the Company or any Subsidiary, except for such liens, charges, claims or encumbrances which would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.
(8)Authorization of Agreement.  This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and is a legal, valid and binding agreement of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with its terms, except as may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally, and by general equitable principles, and except to the extent that the indemnification and contribution provisions of Section 10 hereof may be limited by federal or state securities laws and public policy considerations in respect thereof.
(9)Absence of Further Requirements.  No approval, authorization, consent or order of or filing with any federal, state or foreign governmental or regulatory commission, board, body, authority or agency is required in connection with the Company’s execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement, the consummation of the transactions contemplated herein by the Company, including the Company’s issuance, sale and delivery of the Securities, other than (A) such as have been obtained, or will have been obtained at the Settlement Date (as defined below), as the case may be, under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, (B) any necessary qualification under the securities or “blue sky” laws of the various jurisdictions in which the Securities are being offered by the Placement Agent, (C) any required filings or approvals under the rules and regulations of FINRA and NASDAQ or (D) any such approvals, authorizations, consents, orders, or filings that if not obtained or made, would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect or which would not reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the Company’s ability to perform its agreed upon obligations under this Agreement.
(10)Possession of Permits.  Each of the Company and the Subsidiaries has all necessary authorizations, consents and approvals and has made all necessary filings required under any federal, state or foreign law, regulation or rule, and has obtained all necessary authorizations, consents and approvals from other persons, required in order to conduct their respective businesses as it is currently conducted as described in the Prospectus, except to the extent that any failure to have any such authorizations, consents or approvals, to make any such filings or to obtain any such authorizations, consents or approvals would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be

expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; neither the Company nor any of the Subsidiaries is in violation of, in default under, or has received any notice regarding a possible violation, default or revocation of any such authorization, consent or approval or any federal, state or foreign law, regulation or rule or any decree, order or judgment applicable to the Company or any of the Subsidiaries the effect of which would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.
(11)Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses.  Except for the Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses identified in Schedule E hereto, the Company has not prepared, used or referred to, and will not, without the prior consent of the Placement Agent, prepare, use or refer to, any Free Writing Prospectus.
(12)Company Not an Ineligible Issuer.  (i) At the earliest time after the filing of the Registration Statement that the Company or another offering participant made a bona fide offer (within the meaning of Rule 164(h)(2) of the Securities Act) of the Securities and (ii) as of the date hereof, the Company was not and is not an Ineligible Issuer (as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act Regulations), without taking account of any determination by the Commission pursuant to Rule 405 of the Securities Act that it is not necessary that the Company be considered an Ineligible Issuer.
(13)Absence of Proceedings.  Except as disclosed in the Prospectus, there are no actions, suits, proceedings, inquiries or investigations pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened against the Company or any Subsidiary or, to the extent that such proceeding affects the properties or assets of the Company or any Subsidiary, any of their respective officers and directors or to which the properties, assets or rights of any such entity are subject, at law or in equity, before or by any federal, state, local or foreign governmental or regulatory commission, board, body, authority, arbitral panel or agency which would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.
(14)Financial Statements.  The consolidated financial statements of the Company and its Subsidiaries filed with the Commission as a part of or incorporated within the Registration Statement and included in the Prospectus present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company and its Subsidiaries, as of the dates indicated and results of operations and changes in financial position and cash flows for the periods specified; except as noted in the such financial statements or the Company’s filings with the Commission containing such financial statements, such financial statements and supporting schedules have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States applied on a consistent basis during the periods involved. No other financial statements or supporting schedules are required to be included in or incorporated in the Registration Statement.  
(15)Emerging Growth Company. From the time of confidential submission of its initial Registration Statement on Form F-1 to the Commission through the date hereof, the Company has been and is an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act (an “Emerging Growth Company”).
(16)Independent Accountants.   Each public accounting firm whose reports on the historical financial statements of the Company and its Subsidiaries constitute part of the Prospectus, is, and was during the periods covered by its reports, independent as required by the Securities Act.
(17)No Material Adverse Change.  Except as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement or Prospectus, subsequent to the respective dates of the most recent financial

statements in the Registration Statement or Prospectus, there has not been (A) any Material Adverse Change or any development or transaction that would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change, whether or not arising in the ordinary course of business, (B) any transaction that is material to the Company and the Subsidiaries taken as a whole, contemplated or entered into by the Company or any of the Subsidiaries, (C) any obligation, contingent or otherwise, directly or indirectly incurred by the Company or any Subsidiary that is material to the Company and the Subsidiaries taken as a whole or (D) any dividend or distribution of any kind declared, paid or made by the Company on any class of its capital stock or any Subsidiary on any of its equity interests.
(18)Description of Securities.  The Common Stock conforms in all material respects to the descriptions thereof contained in the Prospectus.
(19)Absence of Registration Rights.  Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there are no persons with registration or other similar rights to have any equity or debt securities of the Company or the Subsidiaries, including securities which are convertible into or exchangeable or redeemable for equity securities of the Company or the Subsidiaries, registered pursuant to the Registration Statement or otherwise registered by the Company under the Securities Act.
(20)Authorization of Securities.  The Securities to be sold by the Placement Agent have been duly authorized and, when issued and duly delivered against payment therefor as contemplated by this Agreement, will be validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable  (meaning that the holders of the Securities will not by reason of merely being such a holder, be subject to assessment or calls by the Company or its creditors for further payment on such Securities), free and clear of any pledge, lien, encumbrance, security interest or other claim, and the issuance and sale of the Securities by the Company is not subject to preemptive or other similar rights arising by operation of law, under the organizational documents of the Company or any Subsidiary or under any agreement to which the Company or any Subsidiary is a party.
(21)NASDAQ.  The Common Stock has been registered under Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act and the Securities are listed on The NASDAQ Stock Market (the “NASDAQ”).
(22)Absence of Stabilization and Manipulation.  The Company has not taken, directly or indirectly, any action which is designed to or which has constituted or which would reasonably be expected to cause or result in stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Securities.
(23)Absence of Registration Requirements.  Neither the Company nor any of its affiliates (A) is required to register as a “broker” or “dealer” in accordance with the provisions of the Exchange Act, or (B) directly, or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls or has any other association with (within the meaning of Article I of the By-laws of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”)) any member firm of FINRA.
(24)Title to Property.  The Company and the Subsidiaries have good and marketable title in fee simple to all real property, if any, and good title to all personal property (other than Intellectual Property which is addressed in Section 5(a)(26)), if any, owned by them, in each case free and clear of all liens, encumbrances and defects in such title (collectively, the “Encumbrances”), except such Encumbrances that are disclosed in the Registration Statement or Prospectus or would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; any real leased by the Company or any Subsidiary is held under a lease which is a

valid and binding agreement, enforceable against the Company or such Subsidiary (to the extent a party thereto) and, to the Company’s knowledge, the other parties thereto, except (A) as may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally, and by general principles of equity, and except to the extent that the indemnification and contribution provisions of Section 10 hereof may be limited by federal or state securities laws and public policy considerations in respect thereof, (B) as otherwise disclosed in the Prospectus or (C) for such Encumbrances that would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.
(25)Description of Legal Proceedings.  The descriptions of legal or governmental proceedings, contracts, leases and other legal documents in the Registration Statement or Prospectus constitute fair and accurate summaries of such proceedings or documents, and there are no legal or governmental proceedings, contracts, leases or other documents that are known to the Company of a character required to be described in the Prospectus or filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement which are not so described or filed; all agreements between the Company or any of the Subsidiaries, on the one hand, and third parties, on the other, expressly referenced in the Prospectus are legal, valid and binding obligations of the Company or the Subsidiaries, to the extent a party thereto, and, to the knowledge of the Company, of the other parties thereto, enforceable against the Company or Subsidiaries in accordance with their respective terms, except to the extent enforceability may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally and by general equitable principles and neither the Company nor any Subsidiary is in breach or default under any such agreements, except to the extent that the indemnification and contribution may be limited by federal or state securities laws and public policy considerations in respect thereof.
(26)Possession of Intellectual Property.  Except as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company or the Subsidiaries own or possess adequate licenses or other rights to use all material patents, trademarks, service marks, trade names, copyrights, software licenses, trade secrets, other intangible property rights and know-how (collectively, “Intellectual Property”) necessary for the Company and the Subsidiaries taken together as a whole (the “Consolidated Company”) to conduct the business of the Consolidated Company as described in the Prospectus, and neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received notice of infringement of or conflict with (and the Company and the Subsidiaries know of no such infringement of or conflict with) asserted rights of others with respect to any Intellectual Property which would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.
(27)Accounting Controls.  The Company maintains a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that, with respect to the Consolidated Company, (A) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (B) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of the historical consolidated financial statements of the Company in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles as applied in the United States and to maintain asset accountability; (C) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (D) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences.
(28)Disclosure Controls.  Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement or Prospectus, (A) the Company has established and maintains disclosure controls and procedures (as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(e) under the Exchange Act), which (1) are designed to ensure that material information relating to the Company, including its consolidated Subsidiaries, is made known to the Company’s principal executive officer and its principal financial officer by others

within those entities, particularly during the periods in which the periodic reports required under the Exchange Act are being prepared, (2) have been evaluated for effectiveness as of the end of the Company’s last fiscal year, and (3) are effective in all material respects to perform the functions for which they were established, and (B) based on the evaluation of the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures described above, the Company is not aware of (1) any material weakness in the design or operation of internal control over financial reporting which is reasonably likely to adversely affect the Company’s ability to record, process, summarize and report financial information, or (2) any fraud, whether or not material, that involves management or other employees who have a significant role in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.  Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement or Prospectus, since the most recent evaluation of the Company’s disclosure controls and procedures described above, there have been no significant changes in internal control over financial reporting or in other factors that could materially affect internal control over financial reporting.
(29)ERISA.  The Company and the Subsidiaries are in compliance in all material respects with all presently applicable provisions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, including the regulations and published interpretations thereunder (“ERISA”); no “reportable event” (as defined in ERISA) has occurred with respect to any “pension plan” (as defined in ERISA) for which the Company or any of the Subsidiaries would have any material liability; neither the Company nor any of the Subsidiaries has incurred and none of them expect to incur any material liability under (A) Title IV of ERISA with respect to termination of, or withdrawal from, any “pension plan” or (B) Section 412 or 4971 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, including the regulations and published interpretations thereunder (“Code”); each “pension plan” for which the Company or any of the Subsidiaries would have any liability that is intended to be qualified under Section 401(a) of the Code is so qualified in all material respects and nothing has occurred, whether by action or by failure to act, which would cause the loss of such qualification.
(30)Tax Returns.  The Company and each of the Subsidiaries has filed on a timely basis all material federal, state and foreign tax returns required to be filed through the date hereof or have properly requested extensions thereof, and have paid all material taxes required to be paid, including any tax assessment, fine or penalty levied against the Company or any of the Subsidiaries except as may be being contested in good faith and by appropriate proceedings; and no material tax deficiency has been asserted against any such entity, nor does any such entity know of any tax deficiency which is likely to be asserted against any such entity which, individually or in the aggregate, if determined adversely to any such entity, could reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; all material tax liabilities are adequately provided for in the applicable financial statements.
(31)Tax Advice.  The Company has not relied upon the Placement Agent or legal counsel for the Placement Agent for any tax advice in connection with the offering and sale of the Securities.
(32)Insurance.  Except as otherwise described in the Registration Statement or Prospectus, the Company is insured by insurers of recognized financial responsibility with policies in such amounts and with such deductibles and covering such risks as the Company reasonably believes are prudent and customary for the business for which it is engaged including, but not limited to, directors and officers liability insurance, policies covering real and personal property owned or leased by the Company and the Subsidiaries against theft, damage, destruction, acts of vandalism and earthquakes.

(33)Environmental Laws.  The Company and the Subsidiaries have received all permits, licenses or other approvals required of them under applicable federal and state occupational safety and health and environmental laws, regulations and rules to conduct the business of the Consolidated Company, and the Company and the Subsidiaries are in compliance with all terms and conditions of any such permits, licenses or approvals, except for any failure to have required permits, licenses or other approvals or to comply with the terms and conditions of such permits, licenses or approvals which would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.
(34)Absence of Impermissible Transactions.  None of the Company, any of the Subsidiaries or, to the knowledge of the Company, any officer, director, employee or agent purporting to act on behalf of the Company or any of the Subsidiaries has at any time (A) made any contributions to any candidate for political office, or failed to disclose fully any such contributions, in violation of law, (B) made any payment of funds or received or retained any funds in violation of any law, rule or regulation or of a character required to be disclosed in the Prospectus, or (C) engaged in any material transactions, maintained any bank account or used any material corporate funds except for transactions, bank accounts and funds which have been or are, as applicable, reflected in the books and records of the Company and the Subsidiaries.
(35)Absence of Indebtedness.  Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement or Prospectus, there are no material outstanding loans, advances or guarantees of indebtedness by the Company or any of the Subsidiaries to or for the benefit of any of the officers or directors of the Company or any officers and or directors of the Subsidiaries or any of the members of the immediate families of any such officers or directors.
(36)Hazardous Materials.  To the Company’s knowledge neither the Company nor any of the Subsidiaries has any liability under any applicable environmental, health, safety or similar law relating to any Hazardous Material (as hereinafter defined) and the Company has not received any written notices of potential liability or claims pending nor, to the knowledge of the Company, is any such potential liability or claim threatened against the Company or any of the Subsidiaries or concerning any of the Properties under any applicable environmental, health, safety or similar law relating to any Hazardous Material, except for such liabilities or claims which would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; neither the Company nor any of the Subsidiaries or, to the knowledge of the Company, any other person, has contaminated or caused conditions that threaten to contaminate any of the Properties with Hazardous Materials, except for such contamination or threats of contamination which would not reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; neither the Properties nor any other land ever owned by the Company or any of the Subsidiaries is included on or, to the knowledge of the Company, is proposed for inclusion on the National Priorities List pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 42 U.S.C. §. 9601 et seq., or any similar list or inventory of contaminated properties.  As used herein, “Hazardous Material” shall mean any hazardous material, hazardous waste, hazardous substance, hazardous constituent, toxic substance, pollutant, contaminant, asbestos, petroleum, petroleum waste, radioactive material, biohazardous material, explosive or any other material, the presence of which in the environment is prohibited, regulated, or serves as the basis of liability, as defined, listed, or regulated by any applicable federal or state environmental law, ordinance, rule, or regulation.
(37)Compliance with Securities Laws.  In connection with the offer and sale of the Securities, the Company has not offered shares of its Common Stock or any other securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable or redeemable for Common Stock in a manner in violation of the Securities Act; and the Company has not distributed and will not distribute any

offering material in connection with the offer and sale of the Securities except for the Prospectus and any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or the Registration Statement.
(38)Lending Relationship.  Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement or Prospectus, neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has any outstanding borrowings from, or is a party to any line of credit, credit agreement or other credit facility or otherwise has a borrowing relationship with, any bank or other lending institution affiliated with the Placement Agent, and the Company does not intend to use any of the proceeds from the sale of the Securities to repay any debt owed to the Placement Agent or any affiliate thereof.
(39)Absence of Finders’ Fees.  The Company has not incurred any liability for any finder’s fees or similar payments in connection with the transactions herein contemplated.
(40)No Other Contracts.  Other than this Agreement, there are no contracts, agreements or understandings between the Company or any of its Subsidiaries and any person that would give rise to a valid claim against the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or the Placement Agent for a brokerage commission, finder’s fee or other like payment with respect to the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement.
(41)Proprietary Trading by the Placement Agent.  The Company acknowledges and agrees that the Placement Agent has informed the Company that the Placement Agent may, to the extent permitted under applicable law, including but not limited to, the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, purchase and sell shares of Common Stock for its own account while this Agreement is in effect, and shall be under no obligation to purchase Securities on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement, except as otherwise agreed by the Placement Agent in the Placement Notice (as amended by the corresponding Acceptance, if applicable); provided, that no such purchase or sales shall take place while a Placement Notice is in effect (except (i) as agreed by the Placement Agent in the Placement Notice (as amended by the corresponding Acceptance, if applicable) or (ii) to the extent the Placement Agent may engage in sales of Placement Securities purchased or deemed purchased from the Company as a “riskless principal” or in a similar capacity).
(42)FINRA Matters.  All of the information provided to the Placement Agent or to counsel for the Placement Agent by the Company and, to the knowledge of the Company, its officers and directors and the holders of any securities of the Company in connection with letters, filings or other supplemental information provided to the FINRA pursuant to FINRA Conduct Rule 5110 or 5121 is true, complete and correct in all material respects.
(43)Related Party Transactions. There are no business relationships or related-party transactions involving the Company, the Subsidiaries or any other person required to be described in the Registration Statement or Prospectus which have not been described as required.
(44)Compliance with Sarbanes-Oxley.  The Company and the Subsidiaries and, to the knowledge of the Company, the officers and directors of the Company and the Subsidiaries, in their capacities as such, are, and at the Settlement Date (as defined below) and any Applicable Time will be, in compliance in all material respects with the provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder or implementing the provisions thereof (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”).
(45)Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. None of the Company, any of its Subsidiaries or, to the Company’s knowledge, any director, officer, employee, affiliate or agent

acting on behalf of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is aware of or has taken any action, directly or indirectly, that violated or is in violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (the “FCPA”), including, without limitation, making an unlawful offer, payment, promise to pay or authorization of the payment of any money, or other property, gift, promise to give, or authorization of the giving of anything of value to any “foreign official” (as such term is defined in the FCPA) or any foreign political party or official thereof or any candidate for foreign political office, in contravention of the FCPA and the Company and, to the Company’s knowledge, its affiliates have conducted their businesses in compliance with the FCPA and have instituted and maintain policies and procedures designed to ensure, and which are reasonably expected to continue to ensure, continued compliance therewith.
(46)Money Laundering Laws. The operations of the Company and its Subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements of the Currency and Foreign Transactions Reporting Act of 1970, as amended, the money laundering statutes of all applicable jurisdictions, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any Governmental Entity (defined below) (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”); and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any arbitrator, court, governmental body, regulatory body, administrative agency or other authority, body or agency having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its subsidiaries or any of their respective properties, assets or operations (each, a “Governmental Entity”) involving the Company or any of its subsidiaries with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the best knowledge of the Company, threatened.
(47)OFAC. None of the Company, any of its Subsidiaries or, to the Company’s knowledge, any director, officer, agent, employee, affiliate  or representative of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is an individual or entity (a “Person”) currently the subject of any sanctions administered or enforced by the United States Government, including, without limitation, the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, Her Majesty’s Treasury, or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), nor is the Company located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject of Sanctions; and the Company will not directly or indirectly use the proceeds of the sale of the Securities, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiaries, joint venture partners or other Person, to fund any activities of or business with any Person, or in any country or territory, that, at the time of such funding, is the subject of Sanctions or in any other manner that will result in a violation by any Person (including any Person participating in the transaction, whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise) of Sanctions.
(48)Investment Company Act.  The Company is not and, after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Securities under this Agreement, will not be an “investment company”, as such terms are defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”).
(49)Statistical and Market Data.  The statistical and market related data included in the Prospectus are based on or derived from sources that the Company believes to be reliable and accurate.
(50)Immunity. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries nor any of its or their properties or assets has any immunity from the jurisdiction of any court or from any legal

process (whether through service or notice, attachment prior to judgment, attachment in aid of execution or otherwise) under the laws of the Netherlands.
(51)Cybersecurity; Data Protection. Except as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus or would not be reasonably expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect, (i) the Company and its subsidiary’s information technology assets and equipment, computers, systems, networks, hardware, software, websites, applications, and databases (including the data of their respective customers, employees, suppliers, vendors and any third party data maintained by or on behalf of the Company and its subsidiary) (collectively, “IT Systems”) are adequate for, and operate and perform as required in connection with the operation of the business of the Company and its subsidiary, free and clear of all known Trojan horses, time bombs, malware and other corruptants; and (ii) the Company and its subsidiary have implemented and maintained commercially reasonable controls, policies, procedures, and safeguards designed to maintain and protect their confidential information and the integrity, continuous operation, redundancy and security of IT Systems and data (including all personal, personally identifiable, sensitive, confidential or regulated data (“Data”)) used in connection with their businesses, except as would not reasonably be excepted to result in a Material Adverse Effect. Without limiting the foregoing, the Company and its Subsidiaries have used commercially reasonable efforts to establish and maintain, and have established, maintained, implemented and complied with, reasonable information technology, information security, cyber security and data protection controls, policies and procedures, including oversight, access controls, encryption, technological and physical safeguards and business continuity/disaster recovery and security plans that are designed to protect against and prevent breach, destruction, loss, unauthorized distribution, misuse, unauthorized access, disablement, misappropriation or modification, or other compromise of the IT Systems or Data used in connection with the operation of the Company’s and its Subsidiaries’ businesses (“Breach”). To the knowledge of the Company, there has been no Breach and the Company has not been notified of and have no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in, any such Breach.
(52)Privacy. The Company and its Subsidiaries have complied, and are presently in compliance, in all material respects, with all internal and external privacy policies, contractual obligations, applicable laws, statutes, judgments, orders, rules and regulations of any court or arbitrator or other governmental or regulatory authority and any legal obligations regarding, in each case, the collection, use, transfer, import, export, storage, protection, disposal and disclosure by the Company and its Subsidiaries of Data constituting personally identifiable information (“Data Security Obligations”). Neither the Company nor its subsidiary has received any written notification of or written complaint from any Governmental Entity regarding material non-compliance with any Data Security Obligation, and there is no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened alleging non-compliance with any Data Security Obligation. The Company and its subsidiary have taken commercially reasonably actions designed to comply with all applicable laws and regulations with respect to Data constituting personally identifiable information that are effective as of the date hereof and for which any non-compliance with same would be reasonably likely to create a material liability.
(53)Regulatory Matters; Products and Product Candidates. Except as described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, the Company (collectively with its Subsidiaries): (i) has operated and currently operates its business in compliance in all material respects with applicable provisions of the Health Care Laws (as defined below) of the Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”), the Department of Health and Human Services and any comparable foreign or other regulatory authority to which they are subject (collectively, the “Applicable

Regulatory Authorities”) applicable to the ownership, testing, development, manufacture, packaging, processing, use, distribution, storage, import, export or disposal of any of the Company’s or its subsidiary’s product candidates or any product manufactured or distributed by the Company; (ii) has not received any FDA Form 483, written notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other correspondence or written notice from any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority alleging or asserting non-compliance with (A) any Health Care Laws or (B) any licenses, certificates, approvals, clearances, exemptions, authorizations, permits and supplements or amendments thereto required by any such Health Care Laws (“Regulatory Authorizations”); (iii) possesses all Regulatory Authorizations required to conduct its business as currently conducted, except where the absence of such Regulatory Authorizations would not be reasonably expected, individually or in the aggregate, to have a Material Adverse Effect, and such Regulatory Authorizations are valid and in full force and effect in all material respects and the Company is not in material violation of any term of any such Regulatory Authorizations; (iv) has not received written notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from the Applicable Regulatory Authorities or any other third party alleging that any product of the Company is in violation of any Health Care Laws or Regulatory Authorizations and has no knowledge that the Applicable Regulatory Authorities or any other third party is considering any such claim, litigation, arbitration, action, suit, investigation or proceeding; (v) has not received written notice that any of the Applicable Regulatory Authorities has taken, is taking or intends to take action to limit, suspend, modify or revoke any material Regulatory Authorizations and has no knowledge that any of the Applicable Regulatory Authorities is considering such action; (vi) has filed, obtained, maintained or submitted all material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by any Health Care Laws or Regulatory Authorizations and that all such material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were complete and correct on the date filed (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission); (vii) is not a party to and does not have any ongoing reporting obligations pursuant to any material corporate integrity agreements, deferred prosecution agreements, monitoring agreements, consent decrees, settlement orders, plans of correction or similar agreements with or imposed by any Applicable Regulatory Authority; and (viii) along with its employees, officers and directors, has not been excluded, suspended or debarred from participation in any government health care program or human clinical research and, to the knowledge of the Company, is not subject to a governmental inquiry, investigation, proceeding, or other similar action that could reasonably be expected to result in debarment, suspension, or exclusion. The term “Health Care Laws” means Title XVIII of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1395-1395hhh (the Medicare statute); Title XIX of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1396-1396v (the Medicaid statute); the Federal Anti-Kickback Statute, 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(b); the civil False Claims Act, 31 U.S.C. §§ 3729 et seq.; the criminal False Claims Act, 42 U.S.C. 1320a-7b(a); any criminal laws relating to health care fraud and abuse, including but not limited to 18 U.S.C. Sections 286 and 287 and the health care fraud criminal provisions under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1320d et seq., (“HIPAA”); the Civil Monetary Penalties Law, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1320a-7a and 1320a-7b; the Physician Payments Sunshine Act, 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7h; the Exclusion Statute, 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7; HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 17921 et seq.; the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 21 U.S.C. §§ 301 et seq.; the Public Health Service Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 201 et seq.; the regulations promulgated pursuant to such laws; and any similar federal, state and local laws and regulations.
(54)Preclinical Studies and Clinical Trials. (i) Except as described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, the pre-clinical studies and clinical trials conducted by or, to the knowledge of the Company, on behalf of or sponsored by the Company or its subsidiary,

or in which the Company or its subsidiary have participated that are described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or the results of which are referred to in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as applicable, were, and if still pending are, being conducted in all material respects in accordance with standard medical and scientific research standards and procedures for products or product candidates comparable to those being developed by the Company and all applicable statutes and all applicable rules and regulations of the Regulatory Authorities and current Good Clinical Practices and Good Laboratory Practices; (ii) the descriptions in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus of the results of such studies and trials are accurate and complete in all material respects and fairly present the data derived therefrom; (iii) the Company has no knowledge of any other studies or trials not described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus the results of which are materially inconsistent with or call into question the results described or referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; and (iv) the Company or its subsidiary have not received any written notices, correspondence or other communications from the Regulatory Authorities or any other governmental agency requiring or threatening the termination, modification or suspension of any pre-clinical studies or clinical trials that are described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or the results of which are referred to in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus other than ordinary course communications with respect to modifications in connection with the design and implementation of such studies or trials. No investigational new drug application or comparable submission filed by or on behalf of the Company or its subsidiary with the FDA or any other Applicable Regulatory Authority has been terminated or suspended by the FDA or such other Applicable Regulatory Authority. The Company has obtained (or caused to be obtained) informed consent by or on behalf of each human subject who participated in a company trial. In using or disclosing patient information received by the Company or its subsidiary in connection with a company trial, the Company has complied in all material respects with all applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements, including, without limitation, if applicable, HIPAA and the rules and regulations thereunder and any comparable foreign regulatory authority to which they are subject. To the Company’s knowledge, none of the Company’s trials involved any investigator who has been disqualified as a clinical investigator or has been found by the FDA or any other Applicable Regulatory Authority to have engaged in scientific misconduct.
(55)Validity of Choice of Law. The choice of the laws of the State of New York as the governing law of this Agreement is a valid choice of law under the laws of the Netherlands and will be recognized by courts in the Netherlands. The Company has the power to submit, and pursuant to this Agreement, has, to the extent permitted by law, legally, validly, effectively and irrevocably submitted, to the personal jurisdiction of each of the State of New York and United States Federal court sitting in New York County (each, a “New York Court”) and has validly and irrevocably waived any objection to the laying of venue of any suit, action or proceeding brought in any such court; and the Company has the power to designate, appoint and empower, and pursuant to this Agreement, has legally, validly, effectively and irrevocably designated, appointed and empowered, an authorized agent for service of process in any action arising out of or relating to this Agreement, or the offering of the Placement Shares in any New York Court, and service of process effected on such authorized agent will be effective to confer valid personal jurisdiction over the Company as provided in this Agreement.
(b)Certificates.  Any certificate signed by any officer of the Company delivered to the Placement Agent or to counsel for the Placement Agent pursuant to the terms or provisions of this Agreement shall be deemed a representation and warranty by the Company to the Placement Agent as to the matters covered thereby.

SECTION 6.Sale and Delivery to the Placement Agent; Settlement.
(a)Sale of Placement Securities.  On the basis of the representations and warranties herein contained and subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, upon the Placement Agent’s acceptance of the terms of a Placement Notice or upon receipt by the Placement Agent of an Acceptance, as the case may be, and unless the sale of the Placement Securities described therein has been suspended or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, the Placement Agent, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable laws and regulations to sell such Placement Securities up to the amount specified, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice.  The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that the Placement Agent will be successful in selling Placement Securities, (ii) the Placement Agent will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Securities for any reason other than a failure by the Placement Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable laws and regulations to sell such Placement Securities as required under this Section 6, and (iii) the Placement Agent shall be under no obligation to purchase Securities on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement, except as otherwise agreed by the Placement Agent in the Placement Notice (as amended by the corresponding Acceptance, if applicable).
(b)Settlement of Placement Securities.  Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Securities will occur on the second (2nd) Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date”).  The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Securities sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate sales price received by the Placement Agent at which such Placement Securities were sold, after deduction for (i) the Placement Agent’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof and (ii) any other amounts due and payable by the Company to the Placement Agent hereunder pursuant to Section 8(a) hereof.
(c)Delivery of Placement Securities.  On or before each Settlement Date, subject to the receipt by the Company of the Net Proceeds due to the Company in respect of such Settlement Date (or confirmation by email from the Placement Agent in form and substance satisfactory to the Company that it is holding such Net Proceeds for and on behalf of the Company as the Company's paying and settlement agent, provided that in such instances such Net Proceeds shall be transferred to the Company as promptly as practicable thereafter), the Company will issue the Placement Securities being sold pursuant to a deed of issue (each, a “Deed of Issue”) and will cause its transfer agent to electronically deliver those Placement Securities by crediting the Placement Agent’s or its designee’s account (provided the Placement Agent shall have given the Company written notice of such designee prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System or by such other means of delivery through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto which in all cases shall be freely tradable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form.  The Placement Agent shall be responsible for providing its account information or other instructions in writing for delivery of the Placement Securities in advance of each Settlement Date.  On each Settlement Date and in any event before the execution by the Company of the applicable Deed of Issue, the Placement Agent will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date.  The Company agrees that if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver Placement Securities on a Settlement Date (other than as a result of a failure by the Placement Agent of its obligations under this Agreement, including to provide instructions for delivery), the Company agrees that, in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 10(a) hereto, it will (i) hold the Placement Agent harmless against any reasonable and documented loss, claim, damage, or expense (including reasonable and documented legal

fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company and (ii) pay to the Placement Agent any commission, discount, or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.
SECTION 7.Covenants of the Company.  The Company covenants with the Placement Agent as follows:
(a)Registration Statement Amendment.  After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which a Prospectus relating to any Placement Securities is required to be delivered by the Placement Agent under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), (i) the Company will notify the Placement Agent promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than documents incorporated by reference, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus has been filed and of any comment letter from the Commission or any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus or for additional information; (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon the Placement Agent’s reasonable request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in the Placement Agent’s reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable in connection with the distribution of the Placement Securities by the Placement Agent (provided, however, that the failure of the Placement Agent to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Placement Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and, provided further, that the only remedy the Placement Agent shall have with respect to the failure to make such filing shall be to cease making any sales under this Agreement until such amendment or supplement is filed); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, relating to the Placement Securities or a security convertible into the Placement Securities unless a copy thereof has been submitted to the Placement Agent within a reasonable period of time before the filing and the Placement Agent has not reasonably objected thereto within a reasonable period of time (provided, however, that the failure of the Placement Agent to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Placement Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and the Company has no obligation to provide the Placement Agent any advance copy of such filing or to provide the Placement Agent any opportunity to object to such filing if such filing does not name the Placement Agent and does not relate to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, and provided, further, that the only remedy the Placement Agent shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to obtain such consent shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement); (iv) the Company will furnish to the Placement Agent at the time of filing thereof a copy of any document that upon filing is deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus, except for those documents available via EDGAR; and (v) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act (without reliance on Rule 424(b)(8) of the Securities Act).
(b)Notice of Commission Stop Orders.  The Company will advise the Placement Agent, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, or of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Securities for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, or of the initiation or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatening of any proceedings for any of such purposes, or of any examination pursuant to Section 8(e) of the Securities Act concerning the Registration Statement or if the Company becomes the subject of a proceeding under Section 8A of the Securities Act in connection with the offering of the Securities.  The Company will use commercially

reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued.
(c)Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus.  Except to the extent such documents have been publicly filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR, the Company will furnish to the Placement Agent and its counsel (at the expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all documents incorporated by reference therein) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, and any Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, that are filed with the Commission during any period in which the Prospectus is required to be delivered under the Securities Act (including all documents filed with the Commission during such period that are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities and at such locations as the Placement Agent may from time to time reasonably request.  
(d)Continued Compliance with Securities Laws. If at any time when a Prospectus is required by the Securities Act to be delivered in connection with a pending sale of the Placement Securities (including, without limitation, pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), any event shall occur or condition shall exist as a result of which it is necessary to amend the Registration Statement together with the Prospectus in order that the Prospectus will not include any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein not misleading in the light of the circumstances existing at the time it is delivered to a purchaser, or if it shall be necessary at any such time to amend the Registration Statement together with the Prospectus in order to comply with the requirements of the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify the Placement Agent to suspend the offering of Placement Securities during such period and the Company will promptly prepare and file with the Commission such amendment or supplement as may be necessary to correct such statement or omission or to make the Registration Statement and the Prospectus comply with such requirements, and the Company will furnish to the Placement Agent such number of copies of such amendment or supplement as the Placement Agent may reasonably request.  If at any time following the issuance of an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus there occurred or occurs an event or development as a result of which such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus conflicted, conflicts or would conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or included, includes or would include an untrue statement of a material fact or together with the Prospectus omitted, omits or would omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances, prevailing at that subsequent time, not misleading, the Company will promptly notify the Placement Agent to suspend the offering of Placement Securities during such period and the Company will, subject to Section 7(a) hereof, promptly amend or supplement such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus to eliminate or correct such conflict, untrue statement or omission. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Company may delay any amendment or supplement required by this Section 7(d) if, in the reasonable judgment of the Company, it is in the best interests of the Company to do so.
(e)Blue Sky and Other Qualifications.  To the extent required by applicable state securities law, the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts, in cooperation with the Placement Agent, to qualify the Placement Securities for offering and sale, or to obtain an exemption for the Securities to be offered and sold, under the applicable securities laws of such states and other jurisdictions (domestic or foreign) as the Placement Agent may designate and to maintain such qualifications and exemptions in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Securities (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement); provided, however, that the Company shall not be obligated to file any general consent to service of process or to qualify as a foreign corporation or as a dealer in securities in any jurisdiction in which it is not so qualified or to subject itself to taxation in respect of doing business in any jurisdiction in which it is not otherwise so subject.  In each jurisdiction in which the Placement Securities have been so qualified or exempt, the Company will file such statements and reports as may be required by the laws of such jurisdiction to continue such qualification or exemption, as the case may be, in effect for

so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Securities (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement).
(f)Rule 158.  The Company will timely file such reports pursuant to the Exchange Act as are necessary in order to make generally available to its securityholders as soon as practicable an earnings statement for the purposes of, and to provide to the Placement Agent the benefits contemplated by, the last paragraph of Section 11(a) of the Securities Act.
(g)Use of Proceeds.  The Company will use the net proceeds received by it from the sale of the Securities in the manner specified in the Prospectus under “Use of Proceeds.”
(h)Listing.  During any period in which the Prospectus is required to be delivered by the Placement Agent under the Securities Act with respect to a pending sale of the Placement Securities (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Placement Securities to be listed on the NASDAQ.
(i)Filings with the NASDAQ.  The Company will timely seek to file with the NASDAQ all material documents and notices required by the NASDAQ.
(j)Reporting Requirements.  The Company, during any period when the Prospectus is required to be delivered under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), will file all documents required to be filed with the Commission pursuant to the Exchange Act within the time periods required by the Exchange Act.  
(k)Notice of Other Sales.  Upon the issuance and during the pendency of any Placement Notice given hereunder, the Company shall provide the Placement Agent notice as promptly as reasonably practicable before the Company offers to sell, contracts to sell, sells, grants any option to sell or otherwise disposes of any shares of Common Stock (other than Placement Securities offered pursuant to the provisions of this Agreement or as otherwise described in the Registration Statement or Prospectus) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire Common Stock; provided, that such notice shall not be required in connection with the (i) issuance, grant or sale of restricted stock, Common Stock, options to purchase shares of Common Stock, restricted stock or other stock awards or Common Stock issuable upon the exercise or vesting of options or other equity awards pursuant to any stock option, stock bonus or other stock or compensatory plan or arrangement described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, (ii) the issuance of shares of Common Stock upon conversion of securities or the exercise of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding as of the date of this Agreement, and disclosed in filings by the Company available on EDGAR or otherwise in writing to the Placement Agent, (iii) the issuance of securities in connection with an acquisition, merger, sale or purchase of assets, other business combination, or strategic alliance or commercial transaction occurring after the date of this Agreement and conducted in a manner so as to not be integrated with the offering of Securities hereby, or (iv) the issuance or sale of Common Stock pursuant to any dividend reinvestment plan that the Company has in effect or may adopt from time to time, provided the implementation of such new plan is disclosed to the Placement Agent in advance. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, nothing herein shall be construed to restrict the Company’s ability, or require the Company to provide notice to the Placement Agent, to file a registration statement under the Securities Act.
(12)Change of Circumstances.  The Company will, at any time upon the issuance and during the pendency of a Placement Notice, advise the Placement Agent promptly after the Company shall have received notice or obtained knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any

material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document provided to the Placement Agent pursuant to this Agreement.
(13)Due Diligence Cooperation.  During the term of this Agreement, the Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by the Placement Agent or its agents in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as the Placement Agent may reasonably request.
(14)Disclosure of Sales.  The Company will, if applicable, disclose in its unaudited interim financial statements on Form 6-K and in its annual report on Form 20-F the number of Placement Securities sold through the Placement Agent during the most recent completed fiscal quarter, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation paid or payable by the Company to the Placement Agent with respect to such Placement Securities.  
(15)Representation Dates; Certificate.  On or prior to the date that the Securities are first sold pursuant to the terms of this Agreement and:
(i)following the effective date of the Registration Statement, each time the Company files the Equity Distribution Prospectus or amends or supplements the Registration Statement or the Equity Distribution Prospectus (other than amendments or supplements that are filed solely to report sales of the Placement Securities pursuant to this Agreement) by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker, or supplement but not by means of incorporation of documents by reference into the Registration Statement or the Equity Distribution Prospectus;
(ii)each time the Company files an annual report on Form 20-F under the Exchange Act;
(iii)each time the Company files its unaudited interim financial statements on Form 6-K under the Exchange Act; or
(iv)each time the Company files a report on Form 6-K containing amended financial information under the Exchange Act (each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a “Representation Date”);

the Company shall furnish the Placement Agent with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Schedule  D, within five (5) Trading Days of any Representation Date if required by the Placement Agent. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(o) shall be waived for any Representation Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice is pending, which waiver shall continue until the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Representation Date); provided, however, that such waiver shall not apply for any Representation Date on which the Company files its annual report on Form 20-F.  Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Securities following a Representation Date when the Company relied on such waiver and did not provide the Placement Agent with a certificate under this Section 7(o), then before the Company delivers the Placement Notice or the Placement Agent sells any Placement Securities, the Company shall provide the Placement Agent with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Schedule D, dated the date of the Placement Notice.

(16)Legal Opinions.  On or prior to the date that the Securities are first sold pursuant to the terms of this Agreement and within five (5) Trading Days after each Representation Date with respect to

which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Schedule D for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Placement Agent (i)(a) a written opinion and negative assurance letter of Ballard Spahr LLP, U.S. corporate counsel to the Company (“U.S. Company Corporate Counsel”), (b) a written opinion of NautaDutilh N.V., Dutch counsel for the Company (“Dutch Company Corporate Counsel”, and together with U.S. Company Corporate Counsel, “Company Corporate Counsel”), and (c) a written intellectual property opinion of Cooley LLP (“Intellectual Property Counsel” and together with Company Corporate Counsel, “Company Counsel”) or other counsel reasonably satisfactory to the Placement Agent, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Placement Agent and its counsel, dated the date that the opinion is required to be delivered, in form and substance satisfactory to the Placement Agent, and (ii), unless waived by the Placement Agent, a written opinion of Duane Morris LLP, counsel to the Placement Agent (“Counsel to the Placement Agent”), or other counsel reasonably satisfactory to the Placement Agent, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Placement Agent, dated the date that the opinion is required to be delivered; provided, however, that in lieu of such opinions for subsequent Representation Dates (but excluding the required negative assurances letter), counsel may furnish the Placement Agent with a letter (a “Reliance Letter”) to the effect that the Placement Agent may rely on a prior opinion delivered under this Section 7(p) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Representation Date).
(17)Comfort Letter.  On or prior to the date that the Securities are first sold pursuant to the terms of this Agreement and within five (5) Trading Days after each Representation Date, other than pursuant to Section 7(o)(iii), with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Schedule D for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause its independent accountants (and any other independent accountants whose report is included in the Prospectus) to furnish the Placement Agent letters (the “Comfort Letters”), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, in form and substance satisfactory to the Placement Agent, (i) confirming that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act, the Exchange Act and the PCAOB, and (ii) stating, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to underwriters in connection with registered public offerings.
(18)Market Activities.  The Company will not, directly or indirectly, (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or would reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Securities or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase the Securities shares of Common Stock in violation of Regulation M, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Securities to be issued and sold pursuant to this Agreement other than the Placement Agent; provided, however, that the Company may bid for and purchase shares of its Common Stock in accordance with Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act.
(19)Securities Act and Exchange Act.  The Company will use its best efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act and the Exchange Act as from time to time in force, so far as necessary to permit the continuance of sales of, or dealings in, the Placement Securities as contemplated by the provisions hereof and the Prospectus.
(20)No Offer to Sell.  Other than a free writing prospectus (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) approved in advance in writing by the Company and the Placement Agent in its capacity as principal or agent hereunder, neither the Placement Agent nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than the Placement Agent in its capacity as such) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communications (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), required

to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy shares of Common Stock hereunder.
(21)Sarbanes-Oxley Act.  The Company and its Subsidiaries will use commercially reasonable efforts to comply with all effective applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
SECTION 8.Payment of Expenses. The Company will pay all expenses incident to the performance of its obligations under this Agreement, including (i) the preparation, printing and filing of the Registration Statement (including financial statements and exhibits) as originally filed and of each amendment and supplement thereto, (ii) the word processing, printing and delivery to the Placement Agent of this Agreement and such other documents as may be required in connection with the offering, purchase, sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Securities, (iii) the preparation, issuance and delivery of the certificates for the Placement Securities to the Placement Agent, including any stock or other transfer taxes and any capital duties, stamp duties or other similar documentary duties or taxes payable upon the sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Securities to the Placement Agent, (iv) the fees and disbursements of the counsel, accountants and other advisors to the Company, (v) the qualification or exemption of the Placement Securities under securities laws in accordance with the provisions of Section 7(e) hereof, including filing fees and the reasonable fees and disbursements of counsel for the Placement Agent in connection therewith and in connection with the preparation of the Blue Sky Survey and any supplements thereto, (vi) the printing and delivery to the Placement Agent of copies of any permitted Free Writing Prospectus and the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto and any costs associated with electronic delivery of any of the foregoing by the Placement Agent to investors, (vii) the fees and expenses of the transfer agent and registrar for the Securities, (viii) the filing fees incident to, and the reasonable fees and disbursements of counsel to the Placement Agent in connection with, the review by FINRA of the terms of the sale of the Securities, (ix) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing of the Placement Securities on the NASDAQ, (x) the reasonable and documented fees and disbursements of counsel for the Placement Agent and (xi) the reasonable and documented costs and expenses of the Placement Agent, including without limitation the fees set forth in Subsection (v), (viii) and (x) of this Section 8, which shall not exceed (a) $50,000 in the aggregate, plus (b) $2,500 in the aggregate per calendar quarter for ongoing diligence arising from the transactions contemplated by this Agreement.
SECTION 9.Conditions of the Placement Agent’s Obligations.  The obligations of the Placement Agent hereunder with respect to a Placement will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties of the Company contained in this Agreement or in certificates of any officer of the Company or any Subsidiary of the Company delivered pursuant to the provisions hereof, to the performance by the Company of its covenants and other obligations hereunder, and to the following further conditions:
(a)Opinions of Company Corporate Counsel and Counsel to the Placement Agent.  On or prior to the date that Securities are first sold pursuant to the terms of this Agreement the Company shall furnish to the Placement Agent the opinions and negative assurances letter, each addressed to the Placement Agent, of (i) Company Corporate Counsel, other counsel satisfactory to the Placement Agent, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Placement Agent and its counsel, dated the date that the opinion is required to be delivered, in form and substance satisfactory to the Placement Agent; and (ii), unless waived by the Placement Agent, Duane Morris LLP, counsel to the Placement Agent, or other counsel satisfactory to the Placement Agent, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Placement Agent dated the date that the opinion is required to be delivered.
(b)Effectiveness of Registration Statement.  The Registration Statement and any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement shall have become effective and shall be available for (i) all sales of Placement

Securities sold pursuant to all prior Placement Notices and (ii) the sale of all Placement Securities contemplated to be sold by any Placement Notice.  
(c)No Material Notices.  None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Placement Securities for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any material statement made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, or any material document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference untrue in any material respect or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, or such documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, that in the case of the Prospectus and any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.
(d)No Misstatement or Material Omission.  The Placement Agent shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement contains an untrue statement of fact that in the Placement Agent’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in the Placement Agent’s opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein, not misleading or that the Prospectus, or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in the Placement Agent’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in the Placement Agent’s opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances in which they were made, not misleading.
(e)Material Changes.  Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change in the condition, financial or otherwise, or in the earnings, business affairs or business prospects of the Company and its Subsidiaries considered as one enterprise, whether or not arising in the ordinary course of business that is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Placement Securities on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.
(f)Representation Certificate.  The Placement Agent shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(o) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(o).
(g)Legal Opinions and Negative Assurance Letter.  The Placement Agent shall have received the opinions and negative assurances letter of Company Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(p) on or before the date on which delivery of such opinion and/or negative assurance letter is required pursuant to Section 7(p).
(h)Accountant’s Comfort Letter.  The Placement Agent shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant Section 7(q) on or before the date on which such delivery of such letter is required pursuant to Section 7(q).

(9)Secretary’s Certificate.  On the date of this Agreement, the Placement Agent shall have received a certificate, signed on behalf of the Company by its corporate Secretary, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to the Placement Agent and its counsel.
(10)Approval for Listing.  The Placement Securities shall either have been (i) approved for listing on NASDAQ, subject only to notice of issuance, or (ii) the Company shall have submitted a notification of listing of the Placement Securities on the NASDAQ at, or prior to, the issuance of any Placement Notice.
(11)No Suspension.  Trading in the Securities shall not have been suspended on the NASDAQ.
(12)Additional Documents.  On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(o), counsel for the Placement Agent shall have been furnished with such documents and opinions as they shall have reasonably requested for the purpose of enabling them to pass upon the issuance and sale of the Securities as herein contemplated, or in order to evidence the accuracy of any of the representations or warranties, or the fulfillment of any of the conditions, contained in this Agreement.
(13)Securities Act Filings Made.  All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424 under the Securities Act to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424 under the Securities Act.
SECTION 10.Indemnity and Contribution by the Company and the Placement Agent.
(a)Indemnification by the Company.  The Company agrees to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Placement Agent and any person who controls the Placement Agent within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, from and against any loss, expense, liability, damage or claim (including the reasonable cost of investigation) which, jointly or severally, the Placement Agent or any controlling person may incur under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or otherwise, insofar as such loss, expense, liability, damage or claim arises out of or is based upon (1) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement (or any amendment thereof), any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus that the Company has filed or was required to file with the Commission or the Prospectus (the term Prospectus for the purpose of this Section 10 being deemed to include the Prospectus as of its date and as amended or supplemented by the Company), (2) any omission or alleged omission to state a material fact required to be stated in any such Registration Statement, or necessary to make the statements made therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, or (3) any omission or alleged omission from any such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or Prospectus of a material fact necessary to make the statements made therein (in the case of the Prospectus and any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus), in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; except, in the case of each of clauses (1), (2) and (3), insofar as any such loss, expense, liability, damage or claim arises out of or is based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or any omission or alleged omission of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein (in the light of the circumstances under which they were made) not misleading, in each such case, to the extent contained in and in conformity with information furnished in writing by the Placement Agent to the Company expressly for use therein (that information being limited to that described in Section 10(b) hereof).  The indemnity agreement set forth in this Section 10(a) shall be in addition to any liability which the Company may otherwise have.  If any action is brought against the Placement Agent or any controlling person in respect of which indemnity may be sought against the Company pursuant to the foregoing paragraph of this Section 10(a), the Placement Agent shall promptly notify the Company, as the case may be, in writing of the institution of such action, and the Company, as

the case may be, shall if it so elects, assume the defense of such action, including the employment of counsel and payment of expenses; provided, however, that any failure or delay to so notify the Company, as the case may be, will not relieve the Company of any obligation hereunder, except to the extent that its ability to defend is materially prejudiced by such failure or delay.  The Placement Agent or such controlling person shall have the right to employ its or their own counsel in any such case, but the fees and expenses of such counsel shall be at the expense of the Placement Agent or such controlling person unless the employment of such counsel shall have been authorized in writing by the Company in connection with the defense of such action, or the Company shall not have employed counsel  reasonably satisfactory to the Placement Agent or such controlling person, as the case may be, to have charge of the defense of such action within a reasonable time, or such indemnified party or parties shall have reasonably concluded (based on the advice of counsel) that there may be defenses available to it or them which are different from or additional to those available to the Company (in which case the Company shall not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party or parties), in any of which events such fees and expenses shall be borne by the Company and paid as incurred (it being understood, however, that the Company shall not be liable for the expenses of more than one separate firm of attorneys for the Placement Agent or such controlling persons in any one action or series of related actions in the same jurisdiction (other than local counsel in any such jurisdiction) representing the indemnified parties who are parties to such action).  Anything in this paragraph to the contrary notwithstanding, the Company shall not be liable for any settlement of any such claim or action effected without the Company’s written consent.
(b)Indemnification by the Placement Agent. The Placement Agent agrees to indemnify, defend and hold harmless the Company, the Company’s directors, the Company’s officers that signed the Registration Statement, any person who controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, from and against any loss, expense, liability, damage or claim (including the reasonable cost of investigation) which, jointly or severally, the Company or any such person may incur under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or otherwise, insofar as such loss, expense, liability, damage or claim arises out of or is based upon (1) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement (or any amendment thereof), any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus that the Company has filed or was required to file with the Commission, or the Prospectus, (2) any omission or alleged omission to state a material fact required to be stated in any such Registration Statement, or necessary to make the statements made therein not misleading, or (3) any omission or alleged omission from any such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus of a material fact necessary to make the statements made therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, but in each case only insofar as such untrue statement or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission was made in such Registration Statement, Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or Prospectus in reliance upon and in conformity with information furnished in writing by the Placement Agent to the Company expressly for use therein.  The statements set forth in the eighth paragraph under the caption “Plan of Distribution” in the Equity Distribution Prospectus (to the extent such statements relate to the Placement Agent) constitute the only information furnished by or on behalf of the Placement Agent to the Company for the purposes of Section 5(a)(1) and this Section 10.  The indemnity agreement set forth in this Section 10(b) shall be in addition to any liabilities that the Placement Agent may otherwise have.

If any action is brought against the Company or any such person in respect of which indemnity may be sought against the Placement Agent pursuant to the foregoing paragraph, the Company or such person shall promptly notify the Placement Agent in writing of the institution of such action and the Placement Agent shall if it so elects assume the defense of such action, including the employment of counsel and payment of expenses; provided, however, that any failure or delay to so notify the Placement Agent will not relieve the Placement Agent of any obligation hereunder, except to the extent that its ability to defend is materially prejudiced by such failure or delay.  The Company or such person shall have the right to employ its or their own counsel in any such case, but the fees and expenses of such counsel shall be at the


expense of the Company or such person unless the employment of such counsel shall have been authorized in writing by the Placement Agent in connection with the defense of such action or the Placement Agent shall not have employed counsel reasonably satisfactory to the Company or such person, as the case may be, to have charge of the defense of such action within a reasonable time or such indemnified party or parties shall have reasonably concluded (based on the advice of counsel) that there may be defenses available to it or them which are different from or additional to those available to (in which case the Placement Agent shall not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party or parties), in any of which events such fees and expenses shall be borne by the Placement Agent and paid as incurred (it being understood, however, that the Placement Agent shall not be liable for the expenses of more than one separate firm of attorneys in any one action or series of related actions in the same jurisdiction (other than local counsel in any such jurisdiction) representing the indemnified parties who are parties to such action).  Anything in this paragraph to the contrary notwithstanding, the Placement Agent shall not be liable for any settlement of any such claim or action effected without its written consent.

(c)Contribution.  If the indemnification provided for in this Section 10 is unavailable or insufficient to hold harmless an indemnified party under subsections (a) and (b) of this Section 10 in respect of any losses, expenses, liabilities, damages or claims referred to therein, then each applicable indemnifying party, in lieu of indemnifying such indemnified party, shall contribute to the amount paid or payable by such indemnified party as a result of such losses, expenses, liabilities, damages or claims (i) in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company and by the Placement Agent, each from the offering of the Securities, or (ii) if (but only if) the allocation provided by clause (i) above is not permitted by applicable law, in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in clause (i) above but also the relative fault of the Company and the Placement Agent in connection with the statements or omissions which resulted in such losses, expenses, liabilities, damages or claims, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations.  The relative benefits received by the Company shall be deemed to be equal to the gross proceeds from the offering of Securities (before deducting discounts and expenses) received by each of them and benefits received by the Placement Agent shall be deemed to be equal to the discounts and commissions received by the Placement Agent.  The relative fault of the Company and of the Placement Agent shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission relates to information supplied by the Company or by the Placement Agent and the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission.  The amount paid or payable by a party as a result of the losses, claims, damages and liabilities referred to above shall be deemed to include any legal or other fees or expenses reasonably incurred by such party in connection with investigating or defending any claim or action.
(d)The Company and the Placement Agent agree that it would not be just and equitable if contribution pursuant to this Section 10 were determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation which does not take account of the equitable considerations referred to in clause (i) and, if applicable, clause (ii) of subsection (c) above.  Notwithstanding the provisions of this Section 10, the Placement Agent shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the discounts and commissions applicable to the Securities sold by the Placement Agent and the liability of the Company pursuant to this Section 10 shall not exceed the gross proceeds received by the Company (before deducting discounts and expenses).  No person guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) shall be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation.
SECTION 11.Representations, Warranties and Agreements to Survive Delivery.  All representations, warranties and agreements contained in this Agreement or in certificates of officers of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries submitted pursuant hereto, shall remain operative and in full force and

effect, regardless of any investigation made by or on behalf of the Placement Agent or controlling person, or by or on behalf of the Company, and shall survive delivery of the Securities to the Placement Agent.
SECTION 12.Termination of Agreement.
(a)Termination; General.  The Placement Agent may terminate this Agreement, by written notice to the Company, as hereinafter specified at any time (i) if there has been, since the time of execution of this Agreement or since the date as of which information is given in the Prospectus, any material adverse change in the condition, financial or otherwise, or in the earnings, business affairs or business prospects of the Company and its Subsidiaries considered as one enterprise, whether or not arising in the ordinary course of business, or (ii) if there has occurred any material adverse change in the financial markets in the United States or the international financial markets, any outbreak of hostilities or escalation thereof or other calamity or crisis or any change or development involving a prospective change in national or international political, financial or economic conditions, in each case the effect of which is such as to make it, in the judgment of the Placement Agent, impracticable or inadvisable to market the Securities or to enforce contracts for the sale of the Securities, or (iii) if trading in the Placement Securities has been suspended or limited by the Commission or the NASDAQ, or if trading generally on the American Stock Exchange, the NYSE or the NASDAQ has been suspended or limited, or minimum or maximum prices for trading have been fixed, or maximum ranges for prices have been required, by any of said exchanges or by order of the Commission, the FINRA or any other governmental authority, or a material disruption has occurred in commercial banking or securities settlement or clearance services in the United States, or (iv) if a banking moratorium has been declared by either Federal or New York State authorities.
(b)Termination by the Company.  The Company shall have the right, by giving one (1) day notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement.  Upon termination of this Agreement pursuant to this Section 12(b), any outstanding Placement Notices shall also be terminated.
(c)Termination by the Placement Agent.  The Placement Agent shall have the right, by giving one (1) day notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement.  
(d)Automatic Termination.  Unless earlier terminated pursuant to this Section 12, this Agreement shall automatically terminate upon the issuance and sale of all of the Placement Securities through the Placement Agent on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein.
(e)Continued Force and Effect.  This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 12(a), (b), (c), or (d) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties.
(f)Effectiveness of Termination.  Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by the Placement Agent or the Company, as the case may be.  If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Securities, such Placement Securities shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.
(g)Liabilities.  If this Agreement is terminated pursuant to this Section 12, such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except as provided in Section 8 hereof, and except that, in the case of any termination of this Agreement, Section 5, Section 10, Section 11 and Section 19 hereof shall survive such termination and remain in full force and effect.

SECTION 13.Notices.  Except as otherwise provided in this Agreement, all notices and other communications hereunder shall be in writing and shall be deemed to have been duly given if mailed or transmitted by any standard form of telecommunication.  Notices to the Placement Agent shall be directed to the Placement Agent at JMP Securities LLC, 600 Montgomery Street, Suite 1100, San Francisco, California  94111, Facsimile:  (415) 835-8920, Attention:  Equity Securities, with a copy to Duane Morris LLP, 1540 Broadway, New York, NY 10036, Attention: James T. Seery, email: jtseery@duanemorris.com and notices to the Company shall be directed to it at the offices of the Company at  LAVA Therapeutics N.V., Yalelaan 60, 3584 CM Utrecht, the Netherlands, Attention: Chief Financial Officer and General Counsel, with copies to Ballard Spahr LLP, 1735 Market Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103, Attention: Peter Jaslow.
SECTION 14.Parties.  This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Placement Agent, the Company and their respective successors.  Nothing expressed or mentioned in this Agreement is intended or shall be construed to give any person, firm or corporation, other than the Placement Agent, the Company and their respective successors and the controlling persons and officers and directors referred to in Section 10 and their heirs and legal representatives, any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Agreement or any provision herein contained.  This Agreement and all conditions and provisions hereof are intended to be for the sole and exclusive benefit of the Placement Agent, the Company and their respective successors, and said controlling persons and officers and directors and their heirs and legal representatives, and for the benefit of no other person, firm or corporation.  No purchaser of Securities from the Placement Agent shall be deemed to be a successor by reason merely of such purchase.
SECTION 15.Adjustments for Stock Splits.  The parties acknowledge and agree that all stock-related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any stock split, stock dividend or similar event effected with respect to the Securities.
SECTION 16.Governing Law; Time; Waiver of Jury Trial.  THIS AGREEMENT SHALL BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK.  SPECIFIED TIMES OF DAY REFER TO NEW YORK CITY TIME. THE COMPANY AND THE PLACEMENT AGENT EACH HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES ANY RIGHT IT MAY HAVE TO A TRIAL BY JURY IN RESPECT OF ANY CLAIM BASED ON OR ARISING OUT OF THIS AGREEMENT OR ANY TRANSACTION CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.
SECTION 17.Effect of Headings.  The Section and Exhibit headings herein are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.
SECTION 18.Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses.  The Company represents, warrants and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior consent of the Placement Agent, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld, conditioned or delayed, and the Placement Agent represents, warrants and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior consent of the Company, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld, conditioned or delayed, it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Securities that would constitute an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, or that would otherwise constitute a “free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act, required to be filed with the Commission.  Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Placement Agent or by the Company, as the case may be, is hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.”  The Company represents and warrants that it has treated and agrees that it will treat each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433 under the Securities Act, and has complied and will comply with the requirements of Rule 433 under the Securities Act applicable to any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, including timely filing with the Commission where required, legending and record keeping.  

For the purposes of clarity, the parties hereto agree that all free writing prospectuses, if any, listed in Schedule E hereto, as modified from time to time, are Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses.
SECTION 19.Appointment of Agent for Service. The Company hereby irrevocably appoints Corporation Service Company, 251 Little Falls Drive, Wilmington, Delaware 19808 as its agent for service of process in any suit, action or proceeding described in Section 18 and agrees that service of process in any suit, action or proceeding may be made upon it at the office of such agent. The Company waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any other requirements of or objections to personal jurisdiction with respect thereto. The Company represents and warrants that such agent has agreed to act as the Company’s agent for service of process, and the Company agrees to take any and all action, including the filing of any and all documents and instruments, that may be necessary to continue such appointment in full force and effect.
SECTION 20.Absence of Fiduciary Relationship.  The Company acknowledges and agrees that:
(a)The Placement Agent is acting solely as agent and/or principal in connection with the public offering of the Securities and in connection with each transaction contemplated by this Agreement and the process leading to such transactions, and no fiduciary or advisory relationship between the Company or any of its respective affiliates, stockholders (or other equity holders), creditors or employees or any other party, on the one hand, and the Placement Agent, on the other hand, has been or will be created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether or not the Placement Agent has advised or is advising the Company on other matters, and the Placement Agent has no obligation to the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement except the obligations expressly set forth in this Agreement;
(b)the public offering price of the Securities was not established by the Placement Agent; it is capable of evaluating and understanding, and understands and accepts, the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement;
(c)the Placement Agent has not provided any legal, accounting, regulatory or tax advice with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and it has consulted its own legal, accounting, regulatory and tax advisors to the extent it has deemed appropriate;
(d)it is aware that the Placement Agent and its affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and the Placement Agent has no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship or otherwise; and
(e)it waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against the Placement Agent for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty and agrees that the Placement Agent shall not have any liability (whether direct or indirect, in contract, tort or otherwise) to it in respect of such a fiduciary duty claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on its behalf or in right of it or the Company, employees or creditors of Company.

[Signature Page Follows]


If the foregoing is in accordance with your understanding of our agreement, please sign and return to the Company a counterpart hereof, whereupon this instrument, along with all counterparts, will become a binding agreement by and among the Placement Agent and the Company in accordance with its terms.

Very truly yours,

LAVA THERAPEUTICS N.V.

By: /s/ Edward Smith ​ ​

Name: Edward Smith

Title: Chief Financial Officer

CONFIRMED AND ACCEPTED, as of the date first above written:

JMP SECURITIES LLC

By /s/ David Kellman​ ​

Name: David Kellman

Title: Managing Director

Head of Healthcare Investment Banking


Exhibit 4.2

LAVA Therapeutics N.V.

as the Company

and

[ ]

as Trustee

Indenture

Dated as of [ ], [ ]



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ARTICLE 1

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

Section 1.01.

Definitions

1

Section 1.02.

Other Definitions

4

Section 1.03.

Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act

5

Section 1.04.

Rules of Construction

5

ARTICLE 2

THE SECURITIES

Section 2.01.

Form and Dating

5

Section 2.02.

Execution and Authentication

6

Section 2.03.

Amount Unlimited; Issuable in Series

7

Section 2.04.

Denomination and Date of Securities; Payments of Interest

10

Section 2.05.

Registrar and Paying Agent; Agents Generally

10

Section 2.06.

Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust

11

Section 2.07.

Transfer and Exchange

11

Section 2.08.

Replacement Securities

13

Section 2.09.

Outstanding Securities

14

Section 2.10.

Temporary Securities

15

Section 2.11.

Cancellation

15

Section 2.12.

CUSIP Numbers

15

Section 2.13.

Defaulted Interest

15

Section 2.14.

Series May Include Tranches

15

ARTICLE 3

REDEMPTION

Section 3.01.

Applicability of Article

16

Section 3.02.

Notice of Redemption; Partial Redemptions

16

Section 3.03.

Payment of Securities Called for Redemption

17

Section 3.04.

Exclusion of Certain Securities from Eligibility for Selection for Redemption

18


Section 3.05.

Mandatory and Optional Sinking Funds

18

ARTICLE 4

COVENANTS

Section 4.01.

Payment of Securities

20

Section 4.02.

Maintenance of Office or Agency

21

Section 4.03.

Securityholders’ Lists

21

Section 4.04.

Certificate to Trustee